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Infection Control

Infection Control

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Infection Control

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  1. Infection Control Warning: blood and guts to follow !

  2. Infection Control • Microorganisms • Infectious Disease • Chain of Infection • Nosocomial Infection • Disease Control • Environment

  3. Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases. Host: animal or plant that provides life support to another organism. Microorganismsthat cause disease

  4. Microorganisms • Disease: Any change from the normal structure or function in the human body. • Infection: Growth of a microorganism on or in a host.

  5. Disease • Disease occurs only when the microorganism causes injury to the host

  6. Pathogen • A disease producing microorganism. • Multiply in large numbers and cause an obstruction • Cause tissue damage • Secrete substance that produce effects in the body • Exotoxins ( high body temp, nausea, vomiting)

  7. Bacteria • Strep Throat • Bacterial Pneumonia • Food Poisoning

  8. Protozoan • Trichomonas Vaginalis • Plasmodium Vivax • Malaria

  9. Viruses • Common cold • Mononucleosis • Warts

  10. Fungi • Athlete’s Foot • Tinea pedis • Ringworm

  11. Encounter Entry Spread Multiplication Damage Outcome 6 Steps of Infection

  12. Chain of Infection • Host • Infectious Microorganism • Mode of Transmission • Vector/ Fomite • Reservoir

  13. Nosocomial Infections • Infections originating in the hospital; an infection not present before admittance to the hospital.

  14. Nosocomial Infections • Iatrogenic Infection • Compromised Patients • Patient Flora • Hospital Environment • Bloodborne Pathogens

  15. Third Degree Burn

  16. Universal Precautions • Since there is no way you can know if a person is infected, you should ALWAYS use universal precautions: • Wash your hands • Wear gloves • Handle sharp objects carefully • Properly clean all spills • Wear mask, eye protection, and apron if splashing is a possibility.

  17. Airborne Precautions • Patients infected with pathogens that remain suspended in air for long periods on aerosol droplets or dust. • TB, Chickenpox, Measles • Respiratory protection must be worn when entering pt room. • Pt should wear mask.

  18. Droplet Precautions • Patients infected with pathogens that disseminate through large particulate droplets expelled from coughing, sneezing, or even talking. • Rubella, Mumps, Influenza • Surgical mask must be worn when within 3 feet of the pt. • Pt should wear a mask.

  19. Contact Precautions • Patients infected with pathogens that spread by direct contact with the pt or by indirect contact with a contaminated object (bedrail, pt dressing). • Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hepatitis A, Varicella, Flesh-eating Virus • All PPE should be used and equipment must be disinfected after use.

  20. Controlling the spread of Disease • Chemotherapy • Immunization • Asepsis • Medical • Surgical • Disinfectants

  21. Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases • Handwashing • Standard Precautions • Gloving • Gowns • Face masks • Eyewear

  22. Handwashing • Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. • 7 to 8 minutes of washing to remove the microbes present, depending on the number present. • Most effective portion of handwashing is the mechanical action of rubbing the hands together.

  23. Types of Nosocomial Infections • Iatrogenic Infection – related to physician activities • Compromised Patients - weakened resistance; immunosuppressed • Patient Flora - microbes in healthy people • Contaminated Hospital Environment • Bloodborne Pathogens – Hepatitis B and HIV

  24. So What, and Who Cares? • Students and Techs are challenged both physically and mentally by the microbial world. In this world of newly found, life-threatening diseases, education has become the key to survival. Health care providers must be committed to infection control so that diseases can be conquered!

  25. Syphilis in the eye

  26. Infection Control per JCAHO

  27. Fingernail Compliance • No more than ¼ inch long • No artificial nails • No chips on nail polish

  28. When do you wash your hands? • When hands are visibly soiled • Before and after patient contact • After removal of gloves • After using the toilet • After blowing or wiping the nose • Upon leaving an isolation area

  29. When do you wash your hands? • Before Eating • How long do you wash? • 10-15 Seconds

  30. When should sharps boxes be emptied? • When they are 2/3 full

  31. What are some examples of proper usage of gloves? • Wear gloves when you anticipate possible contamination • When handling chemicals like disinfectants for cleaning • Remove gloves immediately after performing task and performing hand hygiene • Hallways should be considered a “glove free zone”

  32. When do you use disinfectant jell? • Before and after patient care when hands are not visibly soiled • Before performing invasive procedures for hand decontamination • To decontaminate hands after contact with patient’s intact skin, i.e., after taking vital signs

  33. What can you use for cleaning equipment and surfaces? • Disinfectant wipes

  34. How do you know equipment is clean? • Clean equipment is covered with plastic • A clean bed or gurney is dressed • Medical equipment is cleaned between patients or when soiled • Not sure ? Always clean and disinfect.

  35. What are examples of Standard Precautions?

  36. What are examples of Standard Precautions? • Use of PPE (personal protective equipment) • Protective housekeeping • Practicing good hygiene

  37. What are the 3 Transmission-based Isolation Precautions? • Contact • Droplet • Airborne

  38. Microorganisms Disease Pathogen Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoan 6 Steps of Infection Chain of Infection Nosocomial Infection Controlling Disease Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions Universal Precautions Review

  39. Questions? • Infection Control