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  1. Sea- Saltwater fishes Flat fish / Round fish Freshwater fishes Migratory fishes Fish Source: On Cooking, Chapter 20, page 561 to 577

  2. Fish are aquatic animals with fins for swimming and gills for breathing. There are over 30’000 species of which most live in seas and oceans, while freshwater fish are far less numerous. All fish are highly perishable but with improved preservation and transportation techniques they are now readily available fresh or frozen almost anywhere. The general term fish includes both fresh and saltwater varieties. They have fins and an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage Fish

  3. Sea fish - Saltwater fish • Round fish • Flat fish • Migratory fish • Fish that migrate either fresh water to saltwater and back for spawning or vice versa or migrate between sea or freshwater without spawning • Fresh water fish • Round fish only • Lake fish and river fish Classification of Fish

  4. Diminishing fish in the world seas has led to an increased establishment of aquafarming both for seawater and freshwater fish. Fresh water fish are farmed in ponds, for river fish varieties often with added flow of water to simulate the stream of water in a river. Aerating is necessary to ensure the natural amount of CO2 in the water. Saltwater fish is farmed off the coast in large netted enclosures. Artificial feeding is very important to the final product of the fish, as the fish can’t naturally “hunt” it’s prey. Aquafarming

  5. Based on the shape and skeletal structure, fish are divided into two major categories • Round Fish • Swim in vertical position • Eyes on both sides of the heads • Shape might be round, oval or compressed • Flat fish • Swim in horizontal position • Eyes on top of their head • Bottom dwellers with dark skin on top and light skin underneath for camouflage • Some change colors according to surroundings • Small scales and dorsal and anal fins run the full length of the body Fish – Structure and Mussel composition

  6. This is a difficult task due to the vast number of species and at times very similar appearance. Adding to the confusion is the fact that the same fish may have different names in different locations and some species are referred to by their foreign name even on menus of restaurants. The FDA has a list of approved market names for the US which helps but is not used in common jargon a good referral guide. Fish - identification

  7. Bass Several fresh and seawater species which are spiny-finned. The freshwater varieties are members of the unrelated sunfish family. They’re meat is lean and delicate. • Largemouth / smallmouth / redeye and black bass The saltwater varieties are very popular and commercially often used: • Black sea bass / Striped bass Sea fish - Round fish

  8. Black sea bass or rock sea bass • Lean firm and flaky meat with mild flavor • 700g – 1360g in weight • Live in the Atlantic ocean from New York to North Carolina • Good for almost all cooking methods, often served whole in Chinese kitchen and often used in Italian cuisine • Striped bass • An Anadromous fish, often referred to as rockfish (wrong description) • Not available commercially due to overfishing and pollution • Aquafarmed striped sea bass (hybrid) or white perch is sold under this name • 500g – 2.2kg in weight • Rich sweet flavor and firm texture, best suited for baking, broiling. Steaming or poaching Round fish

  9. Cod The cod fish family includes the Pacific and Atlantic varieties as well as pollok, haddock, whiting and hake. • Mild delicate flavor and lean, flaky meat • Cod can be prepared by most cooking methods although grilling is not suitable as the flesh is too flaky Atlantic cod • Up to 90kg in weight – market cod up to 4.4kg • Available in pieces fresh or frozen or prepared breaded, stick or portions • Smoked and dried salted cod (bacalao) are specialties • Scrod is a marketing name for haddock or cod weighting less than 1.1kg weight or 50 cm in length Round fish

  10. Haddock • 900g – 2.3kg in weight • Look like a thin, small Atlantic cod • Strong flavor and very delicate texture Pacific cod • Also known as gray cod and comes from northern Pacific • Less abundant than the Atlantic cod • They are often labeled “true cod” in order not to be mistaken with the unrelated species of rock or black cod Pollock • Also known as Boston blue fish or blue cod • Plentiful in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans • Flesh is grey-pink raw, but turns white when cooked • Available also salted or smoked Round fish (COD)

  11. Eels Salt water & Fresh water varieties Long, snakelike freshwater fish with anal and dorsal fins running the length of the body. • The conger eel is from a different family • Eels have a high fat content • Tough skin needs to be removed before or after cooking • Smoked eel is available • May be steamed, fried, baked or in stews • Baby eels are a springtime delicacy mainly in Spain, fried on olive oil with garlic and chilies. Round fish

  12. Grouper - Garoupa The grouper family of fishes counts almost 400 hundred species and is found worldwide in warm waters. • Some species up to 270kg, commercial species 2.2–8.8kg in weight • Lean white flesh with mild-sweet flavor • Tough strong flavored skin is often removed ahead of cooking • Best for baking, frying, grilling or deep-frying Most common varieties: • Atlantic Ocean • Yellow fin / black / red and gag • Pacific Ocean • Sea bass (jewfish, different from black sea bass)/ spotted cabrilla • Other varieties • Red spotted grouper – Lapu Lapu Round fish

  13. Herring Long silver-blue fish from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Herring are strong flavored with moderated to high fat content. • Up to 225g in weight • Fresh sardines, butterflied or filleted can be grilled, broiled or roasted. • Smoked they are called Kippers • Cured and brined they are a specialty in Northern Europe • Matjes, Rollmops • Young small herring are called Sardines • Sold canned whole or skinned, boned fillets • Sold also in oil or sauce, smoked or fried • Used mostly for salads, tapas (appetizers) and sandwiches Round fish

  14. John Dory or St. Peter’s fish Silver skinned with a distinctive black spot and a yellow halo on each side of the body. • White firm, finely flaked flesh • Classic ingredients for bouillabaisse • Can be pan-fried, roasted or baked • Other varieties of the dory family include • Silver / mirror / oreo Monkfish – A.K.A angler fish, goosefish, rape or lotte • Usually sold head off as the head is very large and inedible • Scale-less skin must be removed • Flesh is lean pearly white and very firm • Best for baking, grilling, frying, steaming or broiling Round fish

  15. Mackerel This family includes the King and Spanish mackerel as well as the tuna and the wahoo. • Species known as Atlantic or Pacific mackerel are not generally used for food • Flesh is grey to pink and turns off-white when cooked with mild flavor and flaky texture • Best for broiling, baking and grilling • Available smoked Wahoo Also known as ono and found throughout tropical and subtropical waters but especially Hawaii. • Cooked like the mackerel Round fish

  16. Tuna Varieties include” Bluefin, yellowfin, bigeye, bonito and blackfin, skipjack, longfin or albacore Can weigh up to 200kg Ahi is a marketing name for yellowfin or bigeye tuna Generally cut into 4 loins Fresh tuna flesh is deep red in color, generally lean with the exception of the belly Cooked medium or rare (well done –dry) and best for gilling or broiling Can be smoked or marinated (cured) or canned (cooked) Tuna belly “toro” and loin “maguro” are popular Japanese Sashimi Round Fish

  17. Mahi-mahi Common used name for dolphin or dolphinfish and not to be confused with the mammals of the same name. • Also known as Dorado • Found in tropical seas • Up to 6.6kg in weight • Flesh is off-white to pink, firm texture with sweet flavor • Best for broiling, grilling or baking • Meat can become dry and marinades or sauces are recommended Round fish

  18. Orange roughy Found in the pacific off the coast of Australia & New Zealand • Bright orange skin and firm pearly white, low fat content flesh with bland flavor and firm texture • Mostly sold filleted, boneless frozen up to 225g per fillet • Best for grilling, broiling and steaming Round fish

  19. Red snapper The red snapper belongs to the snapper family found in tropical and subtropical waters with many different genus's and species which include: • Ruby, mangrove, jobfish, yellowtail, African red, black, green and many more • Lean, pink, flaky, sweet flavored flesh turns white when cooked • Available small 450g – 1.3kg and large 1.8kg – 2.7kg in weight • Often available filleted with some skin remaining for identification • Can be prepared for almost any cooking method, head and bones are excellent for stocks. Swordfish • Can reach up to 110kg in weight • Flesh is lean, sweet and very firm, pink to gray and off white when raw turning white when cooked. Due to the size mostly available in wheels • Excellent for broiling and grilling often served medium due to dryness when cooked well Round fish

  20. Sea bream Large family of fish found in the Mediterranean (gilt-head), the Caribbean (Porgy), the Atlantic (black sea) and the Indo-Pacific (emporer & snapper) oceans. • Many fish are called bream and therefore it is difficult to make a single statement about cooking methods and flesh composure. Shark Despite their reputation they make delicious eating. • Mako (often sold as swordfish) & blue shark most common • Sand, sharp-nose, blacktip, angel & tresher commercially available • Can reach up to 100kg in weight and sold in wheels • Good for broiling, grilling, baking or frying Round fish

  21. Flat fish • Swim in horizontal position • Eyes on top of their head • Bottom dwellers with dark skin on top and light skin underneath for camouflage • Some change colors according to surroundings • Small scales and dorsal and anal fins run the full length of the body • All flatfish have four fillets, 2 on each side . Flat fish

  22. Flounder • Lean white to pinkish-white firm flesh with mild sweet flavor • Available fresh or frozen, filleted or whole, deheaded and gutted • Whole fish can be baked or grilled and broiled while the thin fillets are best for poaching, steaming and frying. • Many flounder varieties are sold as sole in an attempt to cash in at the higher prize of “true” sole • English sole • Petrale sole • Domestic Dover sole • Lemon sole Flat fish

  23. English sole • From the west cost of the US • Often marketed as “sole fillets” Petrale sole • From the west cost of the US • Fillets are thicker and firmer compared to other “sole/flounder” species Domestic Dover sole • Also called Pacific sole • Often afflicted with parasites -slimy and gelatinous flesh Lemon sole • Most abundant East cost flounder • Also known as blackback or winter flounder • Average 900g in weight Flat fish

  24. Halibut Among the largest flat fish Up to 135kg in weight Mainly two species – Atlantic (eastern)and Pacific (Alaskan, northern, western) halibut Lean, firm, snow-white flesh with a sweet, mild flavor California halibut are actually a flounder variety and smaller – up to 5.4kg The fillet is large enough to be cut into steaks or cubes Best for grilling, baking, poaching or broiling Flat fish

  25. Sole Perhaps the most flavorful and fine textured flat fish. Not available in US waters and therefore all “sole” fish marketed and caught in the US are actually flounders. Dover sole A classic of European (French) cuisine Pearly-white flesh with delicate flavor Native to the English channel but can be found off the coast of England, Africa and Europe. In Europe only the common sole and the dover sole are sold as sole. Flat fish

  26. Turbot • They are large, diamond shaped fish • The Pacific variety is of no great importance to the cuisines • The are also marketed as Brill The European variety is highly prized and valued for their delicate flavor and firm white flesh Flat fish

  27. Diadromous fishes travel between salt and fresh water. There are three types of diadromous fish: • anadromous live in the sea mostly, breed in fresh water • catadromous live in fresh water, breed in the sea • amphidromous fishes move between fresh and salt water during some part of life cycle, but not for breeding • potamodromous fishes migrate within fresh water only • oceanodromous fishes migrate within salt water only Migratory fishes

  28. Salmon Found in both the northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They return back to freshwaters rivers and streams of their birth to spawn They get their reddish-pink color from fat-soluble carotenoids found in crustaceans they feed on. Salmon is available hot or cold smoked or cured (Gravlax /Lox) or canned. Excellent for grilling, broiling, baking, poaching or steaming AnAdromous Fish (round Fish)

  29. Atlantic salmon • Most important species commercially • Extensively farmed (Norway, Canada, Scotland) • Rich pink color and moist flesh • Wild Atlantic salmon is very rare and seldom available • Up to 5 kg in weight Other Salmon varieties • Chum, sockeye, red, blueback and pink andronomous fish

  30. Chinook or King salmon From the pacific ocean Up to 13kg in weight Red-orange flesh with high fat content and rich flavor Often marketed by the name of the river they come from – Yukon chinook Coho or Silver salmon Available wild of aquafarmed Up to 5.5 kg in weight farmed, wild only up to 450g Salmon family

  31. Strugeon • Numerous species • Caviar producing species – Beluga, Sevruga, Oscietra • Shad • North American fish Andronomous fish

  32. Fishes whish travel between sea and freshwater • Barramundi • Northern Australia • Milk fish – Bangus • Found in coastal regions and around islands reef • Live in the sea but travel into mangroves (brackish water) and streams or lakes to mature • Raised in fresh water tanks for aquafarming Diadromous fish

  33. Trout The trout is a member of the salmon family mainly living in rivers and streams. Aquafarmed varieties include • Rainbow (most popular), brown and brook trout • Some trout's are anadromous like the salmon trout (also called steelhead) • Lake trout's are also called char • Flesh is delicate and lightly pink to gray-white except for the salmon trout which is orange to red in color • Trout is best for baking, pan-frying or steaming • Also available smoked Fresh water fish

  34. Sturgeon • Fresh water varieties only • Pike • Whitefish • Very popular in European lake • Carp • Various varieties mainly lake fishes • Often used in Chinese kitchen for steaming • Barbel / Bream carp / Chub sucker / Leather / Mirror and wild carp Freshwater fish

  35. Char • Arctic / Brook / Lake char • Burbot • Only fresh water member of the cod family • Eels • Fresh water eels – European & American river eel • Catfish • Sheatfish Freshwater fish

  36. Whiting Freshwater fish related to salmon • Up to 3.2kg in weight • Available whole or filleted • Firm, white flesh with moderate amount of fat and sweet flavor • Often used in processed products • Good for broiling, baking and grilling • Also available smoked Round fish

  37. Perch • Pike perch • Tilapia a.k.a cherry or sunshine snapper (unrelated to snapper) • Name given to several species of aqua farmed freshwater fishes worldwide. • Quick growing reaching 1.3kg in weight with white, sweet meat with firm texture • Available whole or filleted, fresh or frozen • Can be cooked used for almost any cooking method • Yellow perch Freshwater fish

  38. Catfish These are scaleless freshwater fishes living in rivers and lakes. Extensive aquafarming eliminates the “muddy” flavor of the wild fish and ensures year-round supply. • Small fishes are known as fiddlers • Pure, white meat with moderated fat content • 700 g – 2.2kg in weight • May be prepared by almost any cooking method but especially suited fro frying • Other species are often imported and sold and marketed as catfish Fresh water fish

  39. Preview The next unit / lesson Shell fish Sea shell fish / Freshwater Mollusks / Crustaceans / Echinoderms Shell fish Source: On Cooking, Chapter 20, page 570 to 573

  40. Crustaceans can be found both in fresh and in salt water. They have hard outer shells, jointed appendages and breath through gills. Crayfish Prawn Crabs Lobster Shrimp crustaceans

  41. Crabs Crabs are found throughout the world and the meat texture and flavor in general depends on the variety and origin of the crab. Crabs are purchased alive or frozen cooked or as crabmeat only Dead crabs must be discarded Crabs can be boiled or baked and used is soups, stews and stir-fried dishes crustaceans

  42. King crabs Very large crabs up to 4.4 kg Caught in very cold waters - northern pacific and Bering sea Sold cooked frozen as clusters of legs, legs & claws split legs. Very white, flaky sweet meat Meat whole leg or body meat, shredded or minced is also available Dungeness crab They are found on the west cost of the US Up to 1.8 kg in weight Delicate sweet meat Sold, live, precooked or frozen or canned or frozen as picked meat. crustaceans

  43. Blue crabs Most abundantly found on the east cost of the US. Meat is rich and sweet. They are available as hard or soft shell Hard-shell crabs are sold live, precooked and frozen or picked meat. Hard-shell crabs are mostly steamed and served whole Soft shell crabs are harvested within 6 hours after molting and are available live from May 15 to September 15 or frozen. Soft-shell crabs can be fried, sautéed, broiled or added to soups and stews. crustaceans

  44. Snow or Spider crabs They are found in abundance on the Alaskan waters and along the eastern coast of Canada Often used to replace the scarcer supply of King crabs They are sold precooked, usually frozen The meat can be used in soups, salads, omelets or other prepared dishes Legs can be served as appetizers crustaceans

  45. Stone crab Generally only available as cooked claws, fresh or frozen (raw, the meat is sticking to the shell) The claw is harvested and the body returned to the seas, where in about 18 months the claw will regenerate onto the body. The meat is firm and sweet, similar to lobster Cracked claws are served hot or cold crustaceans

  46. Lobster Lobsters have brown to blue-black shells with firm white meat and sweet flavor. Lobster shells turn red when cooked They are usually steamed, poached, simmered, baked or grilled and can be served hot or cold Lobster must be kept alive until being cooked, although frozen precook lobster is available Dead lobster need to be discarded Lobster meat or whole tail is also available Maine, Boston, American or clawed lobster Spiny lobster Slipper or squat lobster, lobsterette crustaceans

  47. Maine lobster Edible mate in both claws and the tail Considered the best tasting lobsters From the cold waters off the northern US east cost Mostly sold live but available frozen or as cooked picked meat The coral and tomalley (inside the lobster head) are very flavorful and often used for sauces Spiny Lobster Harvested all over the world Very small claws and only tail meat is used Some times indentified as rock lobsters Warm-water species from Caribbean and Brazil / cold-water species from Australia, NZ and South Africa Cold-water species are considered superior to warm water species crustaceans

  48. Slipper lobster, lobsterette and squat lobster All clawless lobster species Found in tropical and subtropical waters Flavor is considered inferior to spiny and Maine lobsters Langoustines – small Atlantic lobsters crustaceans

  49. Shrimps • Can be found in any waters of the world • Dozen of species and varieties including: • Tiger, white, pink and brown shrimps • Available fresh, raw head on, cooked and frozen head on or off and frozen tail meat shell on or off. • Breaded, battered and other processed shrimps are also available • Shrimp are graded by size in count per kg. e.g 24-26 means there are 24 to 26 pieces per kg. crustaceans

  50. Mollusks are mainly sea creatures although there are some found in fresh water and some on land (land snail) There are generally three categories of mollusks: Univalves Single shell with soft bodies. Mainly marine snails with one foot used to attach them selves to a fix object (eg rocks) Bivalves Mollusks with two shells that are attached to each other by a “hinge” Cephalopods Marine mollusks with distinct heads and developed eyes and several arms attached to the head near the mouth No outer shell but a small inner shell called pen or cuttlebone mollusks