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Quality: definitions and gurus

Quality: definitions and gurus

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Quality: definitions and gurus

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  1. Quality: definitions and gurus MST326 lecture 1 MATS326/gurus.ppt

  2. Introduction to your lecturer • Dr John Summerscales Reader in Composites Engineering • School of Engineering • Reynolds Room 008 • 01752.23.2650 • jsummerscales@plymouth.ac.uk • http://www.plym.ac.uk/staff/jsummerscales MATS326/gurus.ppt

  3. Quality: definitions (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1979) • degree of excellence • faculty, skill, accomplishment • high rank or social standing • (logic) being affirmative or negative • distinctive character (of sound, voice etc.) • concerned with maintenance of high quality (quality control) MATS326/gurus.ppt

  4. Quality: definition (Bergman and Klefsjö, 1994) “The quality of a product (article or service) is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers” MATS326/gurus.ppt

  5. Quality: definition(ISO 8402/ISO 9000) “Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs” MATS326/gurus.ppt

  6. Quality Gurus • W Edwards Deming • Joseph Juran • Philip Crosby • Shigeo Shingo • Kaoru Ishikawa • Yoshio Kondo • Taiichi Ohno MATS326/gurus.ppt

  7. W Edwards Deming (1900-1993)the key to quality: reducing variation • Electrical Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1921 • PhD, Yale University • Western Electric Hawthorne, Chicago • US census statistician, 1939/40 • Teaching Shewhart methods, 1942 • invited to Japan after the war .... • Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position, 1982 • Out of the Crisis, 1986/88 • British Deming Association, Salisbury MATS326/gurus.ppt

  8. W Edwards Deming • regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial success • “all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised” • quality is about people, not products MATS326/gurus.ppt

  9. W Edwards Deming • Core element is the “management circle” • planning • do/implementation • check/study • action • PDCA (or PISA) cycle • Continuous improvement (Kaizen) • teamwork and competence in problem solving MATS326/gurus.ppt

  10. W Edwards Deming • “Out of the Crisis” is “required reading for every chief executive in British industry who is serious about ensuring the international competitiveness of his company”Sir John Egan (Jaguar Cars)in Director magazine, September 1988 MATS326/gurus.ppt

  11. W Edwards Deming • Out of the Crisis (1984) • having a satisfied customer is not enough • profit in business comes from • repeat customers • customers that boast about your product and service • customers that bring friends with them • necessary to anticipate customer needs MATS326/gurus.ppt

  12. W Edwards Demingfourteen points 1 create constancy of purposefor continual improvement of products and service 2 adopt the new philosophy created in Japan 3 cease dependence on mass inspectionbuild quality into the product 4 end lowest tender contract:require meaningful quality along with price 5 improve constantly and forever every processfor planning, production and service MATS326/gurus.ppt

  13. W Edwards Demingfourteen points 6 institute modern methods of training on the jobfor all, including management 7 adopt and institute leadershipaimed at helping people do a better job 8 drive out fearencourage effective two-way communication 9 break down barriersbetween departments and staff areas 10 eliminate exhortations for the workforcethey only create adversarial relationships MATS326/gurus.ppt

  14. W Edwards Demingfourteen points 11 eliminate quotas and numerical targetssubstitute aid and helpful leadership 12 remove barriers to pride of workmanshipincluding annual appraisalsand management by objectives 13 encourage education and self improvementfor everyone 14 define top management permanent commitmentto ever improving quality and productivityand their obligation to implement all these principles MATS326/gurus.ppt

  15. Joseph Juran (b.1904)company wide quality cannot be delegated • Western Electric manufacturing, 1920s • AT&T manufacturing • Quality Control Handbook, 1951 • Management of Quality courses • Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988 MATS326/gurus.ppt

  16. Joseph Juran • structure CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management • essential for senior managers to • involve themselves • define the goals • assign responsibilities • measure progress MATS326/gurus.ppt

  17. Joseph Juran • empowerment of the workforce • quality linked to human relations and teamwork • key elements • identifying customers and their needs • creating measurements of quality • planning processes to meet quality goals • continuous improvements MATS326/gurus.ppt

  18. Philip Crosby (1926-2001)conformance to requirements • Martin missiles • QM at ITT, then corporate VP • 1979: Quality is Free • Philip Crosby Associates Inc. • 1984: Quality without Tears “Do It Right First Time” “Zero Defects” MATS326/gurus.ppt

  19. Philip CrosbyFour absolutes of quality management • quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as goodness or elegance • the system for creating quality is prevention, not appraisal • the performance standard must be Zero defects, not that’s close enough • the measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance, not indices MATS326/gurus.ppt

  20. Philip Crosby • 1992: “Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul” MATS326/gurus.ppt

  21. Philip Crosby • manufacturing companies spend around 20% of revenue doing things wrong, then doing them over again • service companies may spend 35% of operating expenses in a similar way MATS326/gurus.ppt

  22. Four Absolutes of Quality Management (Crosby, 1979) Cost of Quality classified as: • Prevention costs • Appraisal costs • Failure costs MATS326/gurus.ppt

  23. Cost of Quality: prevention costs • design reviews • product qualification • drawing checking • engineering quality orientation • supplier evaluations • supplier quality seminars • specification review • process capability studies • tool control • operation training • quality orientation • acceptance planning • zero defects programme • Quality Audits • preventative maintenance MATS326/gurus.ppt

  24. Cost of Quality: appraisal costs • prototype inspection and test • production specification conformance analysis • supplier surveillance • receiving inspection and test • product acceptance • process control acceptance • packaging inspection • status measurement and reporting MATS326/gurus.ppt

  25. Cost of Quality: failure costs • consumer affairs • redesign • engineering change order • purchasing change order • corrective action costs • rework • scrap • warranty • service after service • product liability MATS326/gurus.ppt

  26. Shigeo Shingo (b.1909-1990)Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing • 1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech • Taipei Railway Factory, Taiwan • consultant with Japan Management Assn • 1955: training at Toyota Motor Company • 1959: Institute of Management Improvement • 1961-64: concept of Poka-Yoke MATS326/gurus.ppt

  27. Shigeo Shingo • Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing • identify errors before they become defects • stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the source and prevent recurrence • 1967: source inspection + improved PY • prevented the worker from making errorsso that defects could not occur • Zero Quality Control MATS326/gurus.ppt

  28. Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989)Pareto and cause-and-effect diagrams • 1939: engg. graduate of Tokyo Univ • 1947: Assistant Professor • 1955-60: Company-wide QC movement • 1960: Professor (still at Tokyo!) MATS326/gurus.ppt

  29. Kaoru Ishikawa “quality does not only mean the quality of the product, but also of after sales service, quality of management, the company itself and human life” MATS326/gurus.ppt

  30. Kaoru Ishikawa (points 1-7 of 15) • product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced • reliability of goods is improved • cost is reduced • quantity of production is increased,rational production schedules are possible • wasteful work and rework are reduced • technique is established and improved • inspection and testing costs are reduced MATS326/gurus.ppt

  31. Kaoru Ishikawa (points 8-15 of 15) • rational contracts between vendor/vendee • sales market is enlarged • better relationships between departments • false data and reports are reduced • freer, more democratic discussions • smoother operation of meetings • more rational repairs and installation • improved human relations MATS326/gurus.ppt

  32. Yoshio Kondo (b.1924)motivation of employees is important • 1945: graduated from Kyoto University • 1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof • 1987 Emeritus Professor • 1989: Human Motivation - a key factor for management • 1993: Companywide Quality Control • leadership is central to implementation of TQM MATS326/gurus.ppt

  33. Yoshio Kondo • Human work should include: • creativity • the joy of thinking • physical activity • the joy of working with sweat on the forehead • sociality • the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues MATS326/gurus.ppt

  34. Yoshio Kondo • Four points of actionto support motivation • when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work • see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work • give time for the creation of ideas • nurture ideas and bring them to fruition MATS326/gurus.ppt

  35. Yoshio Kondo • Leaders must have • a dream (vision and shared goals) • strength of will and tenacity of purpose • ability to win the support of followers • ability to do more than their followers, without interfering when they can do it alone • successes • ability to give the right advice MATS326/gurus.ppt

  36. Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990) • regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota. • graduated with mech eng degree from Nogoya • worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company • 1939: transferred to Toyota Motor Company as a machine shop manager • 1988: Workplace Management ~ just-in-time and Toyota Production System(later known as Lean Manufacturing). MATS326/gurus.ppt

  37. Ohno: seven forms of waste • overproduction • waiting • transportation • motion • inventory • defects • overprocessing MATS326/gurus.ppt