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Facilities Planning - Unit 07 Layout Design: Systematic Layout Planning

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Facilities Planning - Unit 07 Layout Design: Systematic Layout Planning

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  1. Facilities Planning - Unit 07Layout Design: Systematic Layout Planning

  2. Facility Location Structural Design Facility Planning Facility Design Layout Design Handling System Design Hierarchy of Facility Planning Source for Figure: Tompkins and White, Facilities Planning, 2nd edition, Wiley Systematic Layout Planning - 2

  3. Product Design Production Planning Process Design Facility Layout Facility DesignSequential Approach vs. Integrated Approach Material Handling System Design Sequential Approach Systematic Layout Planning - 3

  4. Product Design Process Design Schedule Design Layout Design + Material Handling System Design Facility DesignSequential Approach vs. Integrated Approach Integrated Approach: Impressive results in cost, quality, productivity, sales, customer satisfaction, delivery time, inventory levels, space + handling requirements, building size, etc. Concurrent Engineering Terms of product, process, scheduling and facility design planners work with marketing, purchasing, etc. Personnel address the design process in an integrated way. Systematic Layout Planning - 4

  5. Requirements of a Good Layout • an understanding of capacity and space requirements • selection of appropriate material handling equipment • decisions regarding environment and aesthetics • identification and understanding of the requirements for information flow • identification of the cost of moving between the various work areas Systematic Layout Planning - 5

  6. Engineering Design Process Typically, design problems do not have well-defined, unique, optimum solutions. We are interested in obtaining a satisfactory solution. • General Procedure for Solving Engineering Design Problems • 1. Formulate the problem. • 2. Analyze the problem. • 3. Search for alternative solutions. • 4. Evaluate the design alternatives. • 5. Select the preferred design. • 6. Implement the design. Systematic Layout Planning - 6

  7. Application of the Engineering Design Process to Facility Planning 1. Define (or redefine) the objective of the facility: Specify quantitatively the products to be produced or service to be provided. • Specify the primary and support activities to be performed in accomplishing the objective: • Requirements for primary activities include operations, equipment, personnel, and material flows. 3. Determine the interrelationships among all activities: • Both qualitative and quantitative relationships should be defined. 4. Determine the space requirements for all activities: • These are determined considering the equipment, materials, and personnel requirements. Systematic Layout Planning - 7

  8. Application of the Engineering Design Process to Facility Planning 5. Generate alternative facility plans: • Including alternative facility locations and alternative designs for the facility. 6. Evaluate alternative facility plans: • Determine the important factors (see list of factors). For each candidate plan, evaluate if and how those factors will affect the facility and its operations. 7. Select a facility plan: • Cost may not be the only major consideration. • Use the information in step 6 to determine a plan (pair-wise comparison is a good ranking procedure). Systematic Layout Planning - 8

  9. Application of the Engineering Design Process to Facility Planning 8. Implement the facility plan: • Considerable amount of planning must precede the construction of a facility or the layout of an area. 9. Maintain and adapt the facility plan: • The facility plan must be modified as new requirements are placed, e.g., new energy saving measures, changes in product design may require different flow pattern or handling equipment, etc. 10. Redefine the objective of the facility: • Similar to step 1. • Changes in product design and/or quantities may require changes into the layout plan. Systematic Layout Planning - 9

  10. Layout Planning Important Factors In developing well-thought facilities design alternatives it is important to look into issues such as: a) Layout characteristics - total distance traveled - manufacturing floor visibility - overall aesthetics of the layout - ease of adding future business b) Material handling requirements - use for the current material handling equipment - investment requirements on new equipment - space and people requirements Systematic Layout Planning - 10

  11. Layout Planning Important Factors c) Unit load implied - impact on WIP levels - space requirements - impact on material handling equipment d) Storage strategies - space and people requirements - impact on material handling equipment - human factors risks e) Overall building impact - estimated cost of the alternatives - opportunities for new business Systematic Layout Planning - 11

  12. Facility Layout Procedures • Naddler’s Ideal System Approach (1961) • Immer’s Basic Steps (1950) • Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure (1977) • Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure (1961) • Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (1961) Systematic Layout Planning - 12

  13. Theoretical ideal system Ultimate ideal system Technologically workable system Recommended system Present system Naddler’s Ideal System Approach The ideal system approach is based on the following hierarchical approach toward design: 1. Aim for the “theoretical ideal system.” 2. Conceptualize the “ultimate ideal system.” 3. Design the “technologically workable ideal system.” 4. Install the “recommended system.” Systematic Layout Planning - 13

  14. Immer’s Basic Steps Immer described the analysis of a layout problem as follows: “This analysis should be composed of three simple steps, which can be applied to any type of layout problem. These steps are: 1. Put the problem on the paper. 2. Show lines of flow. 3. Convert flow lines to machine lines.” Systematic Layout Planning - 14

  15. Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure Systematic Layout Planning - 15

  16. Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure In “planning for and preparing the layout,” Reed recommended that the following steps be taken in his “systematic plan of attach”: 1. Analyze the product to be produced. 2. Determine the process required to manufacture the product. 3. Prepare layout planning charts. 4. Determine work stations. 5. Analyze storage area requirements. 6. Establish minimum aisle widths. 7. Establish office requirements. 8. Consider personnel facilities and services. 9. Survey plant services. 10. Provide for future expansion. Systematic Layout Planning - 16

  17. Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Systematic Layout Planning - 17

  18. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureInformation Gathering • PQRST items • Product: what is to be produced • Quantity: volume to be produced • Routing: how it is to be produced • Support services: with what will we produce • Timing/Transport: when to produce and how to move parts in & out • Quantity & Variety often dictate the layout type (product/process, etc.) • can be used to determine • which products justify their own lines, • which families justify their own cells. Systematic Layout Planning - 18

  19. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureInformation Gathering • Photographs about the product • “Exploded” drawings • Engineering drawings of individual parts • Parts list • Bill of materials (structure of product) • Assembly chart • Route sheet • Operations process chart • Etc. Systematic Layout Planning - 19

  20. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureInformation Gathering Systematic Layout Planning - 20

  21. Market Forecast Number of Machines Production Demand Production Rate Product Mix + Production Rate Continuous or Intermittent Production Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureInformation Gathering Schedule design decisions tell us how much to produce and when to produce. Systematic Layout Planning - 21

  22. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow Analysis and Activity Analysis Flow analysis concentrates on some quantitative measure of movement between departments or activities Activity analysis is primarily concerned with the non-quantitative factors that influence the location of departments or activities Charts and diagrams useful in flow analysis: - Flow process chart - Multi-product process charts - Flow diagram - From-to-charts Systematic Layout Planning - 22

  23. A B C D E A B A B C D A B C A B C E F E D F E A D D B E C Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow Analysis and Activity Analysis Basic Flow Patterns Systematic Layout Planning - 23

  24. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis Layout Types Systematic Layout Planning - 24

  25. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis Layout Types Systematic Layout Planning - 25

  26. Milling Department Lathe Department Drilling Department M M D D D D L L M M D D D D L L G G G P L L G G G P L L Painting Department Grinding Department L L A A A Receiving and Shipping Assembly Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis Systematic Layout Planning - 26

  27. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis - A1 Systematic Layout Planning - 27

  28. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis A-2 Systematic Layout Planning - 28

  29. Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis • Desirability (or lack) of locating two work-centers together • information that is difficult to quantify • (example 1) shipping & receiving - share common facilities (e.g., loading docks) • (example 2) engineering & purchasing - efficient communication, quality, • (example 3) environmental factors - delicate testing vs. vibration • Summarized in a relationship or REL chart Systematic Layout Planning - 29

  30. 1. Directors conference room • 2. President • 3. Sales department • 4. Personnel • 5. Plant manager • 6. Plant engineering office • 7. Production supervisor • 8. Controller office • 9. Purchasing department I 1 O 5 U 6 O 5 A 4 I 4 U 6 I 4 I 1 U 6 I 4 O 5 A 4 O 5 O5 U 3 O 5 O 5 O 5 O 5 E 4 O 2 U 6 O 5 O 5 O 5 U 3 U 6 E 4 O 4 U 3 I 4 I 4 U 3 O 5 U 6 Rating Definition A Absolutely Necessary E Especially Important I Important O Ordinary Closeness OK U Unimportant X Undesirable Systematic Layout Planning ProcedureFlow and Activity Analysis Code Reason 1 Frequency of use high 2 Frequency of use medium 3 Frequency of use low 4 Information flow high 5 Information flow medium 6 Information flow low Activity Relationship Chart Systematic Layout Planning - 30

  31. Code Reason 1 Type of customer 2 Ease of supervision 3 Common personnel 4 Contact necessary 5 Share same price 6 Psychology Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relationship Chart Activity Relationship Chart Systematic Layout Planning - 31

  32. I U A U 6 -- 4 -- Note here that the (1) Credit Dept. and (2) Toy Dept. are given a rating of 6. Note here that the (2) Toy Dept. and the (5) Candy Dept. are given a rating of 6. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relationship Chart From To Area (sq. ft.) 2 3 4 5 1. Credit department 100 2. Toy department U I A 400 -- 1 6 3. Wine department U X 300 -- 1 4. Camera department X 100 1 5. Candy department 100 Closeness rating Letter Reason for rating Number Systematic Layout Planning - 32

  33. Value Closeness Line code Numerical weights A Absolutely necessary 16 E Especially important 8 I Important 4 O Ordinary closeness OK 2 U Unimportant 0 X Undesirable -80 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram Systematic Layout Planning - 33

  34. 1 3 E U 4 I U 2 5 A Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram (or Activity Relationship Diagram) The number of lines here represent paths required to be taken in transactions between the departments. The more lines, the more the interaction between departments. Note here again, Depts. (1) and (2) are linked together, and Depts. (2) and (5) are linked together by multiple lines or required transactions. Systematic Layout Planning - 34

  35. Code Reason 1 Flow of material 2 Ease of supervision 3 Common personnel 4 Contact Necessary 5 Conveniences O 4 I 5 U U U E 3 U U E 3 • 1. Offices • 2. Foreman • 3. Conference Room • Parcel Post • 5. Parts Shipment • 6. Repair and Service Parts • 7. Service Areas • Receiving • 9. Testing • 10. General Storage E 5 O 4 U O 4 U U E3 A 1 O 3 I 2 U U U I 4 U U I 2 U U U U U I 2 U U A 1 U O 2 U I 1 U I 2 U U I 2 U Rating Definition A Absolutely Necessary E Especially Important I Important O Ordinary Closeness OK U Unimportant X Undesirable Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relationship Chart Systematic Layout Planning - 35

  36. 8 7 5 10 9 6 4 2 3 1 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram The Relationship Diagram positions activities spatially. Proximities are typically used to reflect the relationship between pairs of activities Systematic Layout Planning - 36

  37. Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Based on the input data and an understanding of the roles and relationship between activities, a material flow analysis (from-to-chart) and an activity relationship analysis (activity relationship chart) are performed. From the analysis performed, a relationship diagram is developed. Systematic Layout Planning - 37

  38. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Space Determination Production-center method Converting method – the present space requirements are converted to those required for the proposed layout Roughed-out layout method – using templates or models on the layout to obtain an estimate of configuration and space requirements Ratio trend projection method – for general space requirements e.g. square feet per direct labor hour, square feet per unit produced, etc. Systematic Layout Planning - 38

  39. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Space Determination • Raw material storage • In-process inventory storage • Finished-goods storage • Aisles, cross isles, and main aisles • Receiving and shipping • Material handling equipment storage • Tool rooms and tool cribs • Maintenance • Packaging • Quality control and inspection • Supervision • Health and medical facilities • Food service • Lavatories, washrooms, etc. • Offices • Employee and visitor parking • Receiving and shipping parking • Other storage Systematic Layout Planning - 39

  40. Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Systematic Layout Planning - 40

  41. 8 7 5 10 9 6 4 2 3 1 Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship Diagram Systematic Layout Planning - 41

  42. 7 (575) 5 (500) 8 (200) 9 (500) 6 (75) 10 (1750) 3 (125) 3 (125) 4 (350) 2 (125) 1 (1000) Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Space Relationship Diagram Systematic Layout Planning - 42

  43. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Relationship diagram: all departments are of equal size. Space Relationship diagram: templates proportional in size to departmental space requirement Systematic Layout Planning - 43

  44. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Activity Relations and Relationship Diagram – Another example Relationship diagram Systematic Layout Planning - 44

  45. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Space relationship diagram Systematic Layout Planning - 45

  46. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Alternative block layout Systematic Layout Planning - 46

  47. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure • Site-specific and Operation-specific conditions • possible adjustment to the layout • Example: • Location of external transportation system (e.g., rail, road, river access) → may restrict the location of shipping and receiving • limitations on access to utilities (HVAC, lighting, etc) in certain areas • aisles should be straight and close to the point where move requests are generated without obstructing manufacturing activities Modifying considerations and limitations Systematic Layout Planning - 47

  48. Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning Procedure Systematic Layout Planning - 48

  49. Systematic Layout Planning Procedure • Factor-analysis method (evaluating the layout alternatives) • List all of the factors to be considered important • Weight the relative importance of each of these factors to each other • Rate the alternative plans against one factor at a time • Calculate the weighted rating values and sum up those values to obtain the total value for each of the alternatives • Select the alternative with the highest total value • Factors • Cost, flexibility, maintainability, expandability (modularity), safety, operation ease Evaluation Systematic Layout Planning - 49

  50. Evaluation - Location Rating Factor Systematic Layout Planning Procedure • Identify important factors • Weight factors (usually 0.00 - 1.00 or 0.00 - 100) • Subjectively score each factor • Sum weighted scores Also see Unit 06B Systematic Layout Planning - 50