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Fire Department History

Fire Department History

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Fire Department History

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  1. Fire Department History

  2. Fire Department History • Firefighting One of worlds most honored occupations and one of the most dangerous. • Department Duty -Life Safety -Incident Stabilization -Property Conservation

  3. Fire Department History • Old World and North America citizens kept: • containers of water • ladder to reach the roof • Bucket brigades used to put out fires • Pilgrims brought firefighting methods to North America

  4. Fire Department History • Industrial Revolution affected textile and steel industries • Textile mills had catastrophic fires • Iron and steel industries produced firefighting tools and equipment, especially pumping apparatus

  5. Fire Department History • Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments • Groups protected cities and towns • Benjamin Franklin • Organized one of the first groups • Founded first fire insurance company

  6. Fire Department History • Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments • Groups were made up of military organizations and adopted rank structure • Then, as today, majority of firefighters in North America were volunteers • Evolved into today’s fire departments

  7. 3 Categories of Firefighters • Career (salaried firefighters) • Paid On Call (receive reimbursement for each run made) • Volunteer (receive no compensation)

  8. Fire Dept. One of First Entities Called During Emergency • Fires • Cave-Ins • Building Collapses • Auto Accidents • Aircraft Crashes • Natural Disasters • Hazardous Materials Incidents • Civil Disturbances • Rescue Operations • Explosions • Water Incidents • Medical Emergencies

  9. Fire Department History • Necessary characteristics and behaviors • Integrity • Moral character • Work ethic • Pride • Courage

  10. Fire Department Organization An organizational chart shows the structure of the department and its chain of command Chief Assistant Chief Captain Lieutenant Lieutenant Firefighters

  11. Chain of Command • Pathway of responsibility from the highest level of the department to the lowest.

  12. Firefighters should be aware of four basic organizational principles in order to operate effectively as a team member Unity of Command Span of Control Division of Labor Discipline

  13. Unity of Command • The principle that a person can report to only one supervisor. • Directly, each subordinate reports to one boss • Indirectly, everyone reports to the fire chief through the chain of command.

  14. Span of Control • The number of personnel one individual can effectively manage. • Rule of thumb is that an officer can directly supervise 3 to 7 firefighters effectively • This number can change depending on the situation with which the officer is faced

  15. Division of Labor • Dividing large jobs into small jobs. These small jobs are then assigned to specific individuals. • Division of labor is necessary for the following reasons: • To assign responsibility • To prevent duplication of effort • To make specific and clear cut assignments

  16. Discipline • Purposes of discipline in a fire department • Educate and train • Correct inappropriate behavior • Positive motivation • Ensure compliance • Provide direction

  17. Standard Operating Unit of the Fire Service

  18. Engine Company • Engine company— Deploys hoselines for fire attack and exposure protection

  19. Truck Company • Truck company — Performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, provides access to upper levels

  20. Rescue Company • Rescue/squad company— Removal of victims from areas of danger or entrapment

  21. Brush Company • Brush company — Extinguishes wildland fires and protects structures in wildland/urban interface

  22. Haz-Mat Company • Hazardous materials company— Responds to and mitigates hazardous materials incidents

  23. EMS / Specialized Rescue • Emergency medical/ambulance company — Provides emergency medical care to patients • Special rescue company— Responds to and performs technical rescue

  24. Fire Company Continued • A company consists of: • Company Officer(s) • Driver / Operator(s) • One or more firefighters

  25. To Perform effectively, a firefighter must have certain knowledge and skills including: • Meet the requirements of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 1001, (Standard for Firefighter Professional Qualifications. • Know department organization, operation and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) / Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG). • Know the district or city street system and physical layout • Meet minimum health and physical fitness standards

  26. Emergency Medical Services • If fire department personnel do not provide EMS or medical transportation, they should develop a relationship with those who do • Firefighters must have appropriate level of first-aid training

  27. Interacting with other organizations • Emergency Medical Services (EMS) • Depending on the set-up of your dept & your SOP’s, firefighting personnel must work very closely with EMS personnel. • Many FF’s are also EMS trained & perform both functions. • Hospitals • During special incidents, hospital personnel may be called to the scene.

  28. Utility Companies • Many incidents involve utility providers (electricity, natural gas, and water) so fire personnel must have a good working relationship

  29. Interaction with Media • NIMS-ICS includes a Public Information Officer for dealing with the media • Students should not make comments or express opinions; refer to PIO • Can play an important role in delivery of news based on an incident

  30. Other Interactions • Any possible contacts should be identified and a relationship established Examples: Public health departments, coroner/medical examiner’s officers, EPA

  31. Fire Department Regulations • Policy—A guide to decision making within an organization • Procedure — Describes in writing the steps to be followed • Order • Directive

  32. Fire Department Regulations • Order—Based upon a policy or procedure; compliance is mandatory • Directive — Not based upon a policy or procedure; a request or suggestion

  33. Standard Operating Procedures • Provide a standard set of actions that are the core of every firefighting incident plan. • May vary considerably in different localities, but the principle is usually the same • Should follow the most commonly accepted order of fireground priorities • Life Safety • Incident Stabilization • Property Conservation

  34. Lessen confusion of fire scene Safety is a top priority when designing SOP’s SOP’s should be applied to all situations, including medical responses. Standard Operating Procedures

  35. Watch this video, this is why we have SOP’s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8f66tK0rByI

  36. Firefighter Safety • Firefighting is one of the worlds most dangerous jobs & accidents in this profession can result in costly losses. • In order to prevent these losses, it is necessary to prevent the accidents that cause them. • Reducing accidents will save lives & money.

  37. Summary • The fire service has a long and proud history of protecting communities. Today’s fire service often performs functions such as emergency medical services, technical rescues, and hazardous materials mitigation.

  38. Summary • Firefighters must have certain aptitudes and capabilities. The job of firefighter required dedication and hard work but it is also rewarding.

  39. You may notice we skipped the Incident Management Portion of this Chapter. You will have an entire class covering ICS.