Fire Department History • Firefighting One of worlds most honored occupations and one of the most dangerous. • Department Duty -Life Safety -Incident Stabilization -Property Conservation
Fire Department History • Old World and North America citizens kept: • containers of water • ladder to reach the roof • Bucket brigades used to put out fires • Pilgrims brought firefighting methods to North America
Fire Department History • Industrial Revolution affected textile and steel industries • Textile mills had catastrophic fires • Iron and steel industries produced firefighting tools and equipment, especially pumping apparatus
Fire Department History • Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments • Groups protected cities and towns • Benjamin Franklin • Organized one of the first groups • Founded first fire insurance company
Fire Department History • Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments • Groups were made up of military organizations and adopted rank structure • Then, as today, majority of firefighters in North America were volunteers • Evolved into today’s fire departments
3 Categories of Firefighters • Career (salaried firefighters) • Paid On Call (receive reimbursement for each run made) • Volunteer (receive no compensation)
Fire Dept. One of First Entities Called During Emergency • Fires • Cave-Ins • Building Collapses • Auto Accidents • Aircraft Crashes • Natural Disasters • Hazardous Materials Incidents • Civil Disturbances • Rescue Operations • Explosions • Water Incidents • Medical Emergencies
Fire Department History • Necessary characteristics and behaviors • Integrity • Moral character • Work ethic • Pride • Courage
Fire Department Organization An organizational chart shows the structure of the department and its chain of command Chief Assistant Chief Captain Lieutenant Lieutenant Firefighters
Chain of Command • Pathway of responsibility from the highest level of the department to the lowest.
Firefighters should be aware of four basic organizational principles in order to operate effectively as a team member Unity of Command Span of Control Division of Labor Discipline
Unity of Command • The principle that a person can report to only one supervisor. • Directly, each subordinate reports to one boss • Indirectly, everyone reports to the fire chief through the chain of command.
Span of Control • The number of personnel one individual can effectively manage. • Rule of thumb is that an officer can directly supervise 3 to 7 firefighters effectively • This number can change depending on the situation with which the officer is faced
Division of Labor • Dividing large jobs into small jobs. These small jobs are then assigned to specific individuals. • Division of labor is necessary for the following reasons: • To assign responsibility • To prevent duplication of effort • To make specific and clear cut assignments
Discipline • Purposes of discipline in a fire department • Educate and train • Correct inappropriate behavior • Positive motivation • Ensure compliance • Provide direction
Engine Company • Engine company— Deploys hoselines for fire attack and exposure protection
Truck Company • Truck company — Performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, provides access to upper levels
Rescue Company • Rescue/squad company— Removal of victims from areas of danger or entrapment
Brush Company • Brush company — Extinguishes wildland fires and protects structures in wildland/urban interface
Haz-Mat Company • Hazardous materials company— Responds to and mitigates hazardous materials incidents
EMS / Specialized Rescue • Emergency medical/ambulance company — Provides emergency medical care to patients • Special rescue company— Responds to and performs technical rescue
Fire Company Continued • A company consists of: • Company Officer(s) • Driver / Operator(s) • One or more firefighters
To Perform effectively, a firefighter must have certain knowledge and skills including: • Meet the requirements of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 1001, (Standard for Firefighter Professional Qualifications. • Know department organization, operation and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) / Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG). • Know the district or city street system and physical layout • Meet minimum health and physical fitness standards
Emergency Medical Services • If fire department personnel do not provide EMS or medical transportation, they should develop a relationship with those who do • Firefighters must have appropriate level of first-aid training
Interacting with other organizations • Emergency Medical Services (EMS) • Depending on the set-up of your dept & your SOP’s, firefighting personnel must work very closely with EMS personnel. • Many FF’s are also EMS trained & perform both functions. • Hospitals • During special incidents, hospital personnel may be called to the scene.
Utility Companies • Many incidents involve utility providers (electricity, natural gas, and water) so fire personnel must have a good working relationship
Interaction with Media • NIMS-ICS includes a Public Information Officer for dealing with the media • Students should not make comments or express opinions; refer to PIO • Can play an important role in delivery of news based on an incident
Other Interactions • Any possible contacts should be identified and a relationship established Examples: Public health departments, coroner/medical examiner’s officers, EPA
Fire Department Regulations • Policy—A guide to decision making within an organization • Procedure — Describes in writing the steps to be followed • Order • Directive
Fire Department Regulations • Order—Based upon a policy or procedure; compliance is mandatory • Directive — Not based upon a policy or procedure; a request or suggestion
Standard Operating Procedures • Provide a standard set of actions that are the core of every firefighting incident plan. • May vary considerably in different localities, but the principle is usually the same • Should follow the most commonly accepted order of fireground priorities • Life Safety • Incident Stabilization • Property Conservation
Lessen confusion of fire scene Safety is a top priority when designing SOP’s SOP’s should be applied to all situations, including medical responses. Standard Operating Procedures
Watch this video, this is why we have SOP’s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8f66tK0rByI
Firefighter Safety • Firefighting is one of the worlds most dangerous jobs & accidents in this profession can result in costly losses. • In order to prevent these losses, it is necessary to prevent the accidents that cause them. • Reducing accidents will save lives & money.
Summary • The fire service has a long and proud history of protecting communities. Today’s fire service often performs functions such as emergency medical services, technical rescues, and hazardous materials mitigation.
Summary • Firefighters must have certain aptitudes and capabilities. The job of firefighter required dedication and hard work but it is also rewarding.
You may notice we skipped the Incident Management Portion of this Chapter. You will have an entire class covering ICS.