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Why does tension exist between America & Iran? PowerPoint Presentation
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Why does tension exist between America & Iran?

Why does tension exist between America & Iran?

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Why does tension exist between America & Iran?

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  1. Why does tension exist between America & Iran?

  2. Iranians are Persian(Iran used to be called Persia) • Persians & Arabs are different ethnic groups • They do NOT like to be confused or put into the same category simply because they both originated in the Middle East • Iranians are NOT Arabs!

  3. Mideast Empires • http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/EMPIRE17.swf

  4. 1949: China becomes communist • 1950: NK invades SK to turn them communist • 1953: Mossadegh & Operation Ajax

  5. Official religion: Islam • Iranians are almost all Muslims • Iran is a theocracy • Iranians are Shiites

  6. Iran is a theocracy (majority Shiite) Sunnis: GreenShiites: BlueMajority Minority

  7. Russia & GB tried to imperialize Iran

  8. Spheres of Influence in Iran

  9. Oil fields in Iran: Controlled by GB • AIOC: Anglo Iranian Oil Co • In 1954, it changed its name… • …to British Petroleum, or

  10. 1st Shah (King of Iran) • Reza Shah: 1925-1941 • Improved infrastructure • Reduced foreign influence • Killed dissenters • Promoted modernization • More secular; prohibited veiling of women • Religious leaders angry • Focused on education; especially for girls

  11. Mohammad Mossadegh: 1953Attempts to nationalize AIOC & remove GB

  12. Mossadegh was very popular…even appearing on Time Magazine cover • As Man of the Year!

  13. Operation Ajax • CIA coup that overthrew Mossadegh, the democratically elected leader of Iran • And replaced him with Mohammad Reza Shah (son of former King, Reza Shah)

  14. Mohammad Reza Shah takes over (1953-79) His father was Shah from (1925-41)

  15. Reza Shah becomes brutal dictator with an oppressive secret police called the Savak • Other problems during the Shah’s reign • Iranians don’t benefit from their oil • Shah is friendly with the US • Industrialization was beneficial in some ways, but also produces social classes

  16. 1979: VERY important year • Shah overthrown • He is given refuge in the US

  17. A Radical Islamic Theocracy Takes hold in Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini • “Iran Hostage Crisis” (united streaming)

  18. Iran: The Next Iraq • 5 Parts on youtube • Part 3: History of Iran from WWII-

  19. Iran – Iraq War 1980 - 1988

  20. Iraq invades Iran • 1979: The Shah leaving Iran & the Islamic Revolution opened a power vacuum • Saddam Hussein took advantage of that power vacuum and the turmoil in Iran by invading the country in order to take its oil • 1980: Iraq invades Iran

  21. Iran Persian Shiite majority Iraq Arab Shiite majority Sunnis are the minority Saddam Hussein was Sunni Ethnic religious make up

  22. Why is the religious and ethnic make up of iran and iraq significant?

  23. Causes of the war • Iraq wanted Iran’s oil • Iran encourages Shiites in Iraq to rise up against saddam since they are the majority • Saddam had ambitions of controlling the region

  24. Oil supply threatened: 60% of oil used by the west passed through the strait of hormuz Danger of larger Mideast conflict The World threat

  25. Taking sides • Iraq is clearly the aggressor, but… • Arab nations – declare neutrality but support Iraq (Saudi Arabia and Kuwait lend Iraq billions) • Why would Arab Nations support Iraq? • USA – sided w/ Iraq, us supplied saddam with weapons • Why would US support Iraq?

  26. Attacks on international shipping • US frigate was hit by an iraqi missile (37 sailors killed) • 1987 iran mined persian gulf • US warships began mine sweeping and escorting oil tankers • 1987 naval confrontation between us and iran • 1988 us shot down iranian civilian airliner (280 killed)

  27. Basij Militia of Iran • Recruited young men • Martyrs • Barely armed • Keys to heaven

  28. Key Events in Iran Iraq War • Iraq’s initial blitz failed; poor leadership • Iranians rallied behind Ayatollah Khomeini because he encouraged martyrdom; Used “Human Wave” tactics • Oil fields destroyed; Saddam uses chemical weapons • Ceasefire in 1988 organized by the UN • No territory changed hands • 1million dead by the time the war was over