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Latin America

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  1. Latin America Unit 3

  2. Physical Geography of Latin America Chapter 7

  3. Landforms • Middle America • Mexico and Central America • Central America • an isthmus, or a narrow piece of land that links North America and South America

  4. Landforms • Middle America • Lies where four tectonic plates meet • Deposits of ash and lava make the soil fertile

  5. Landforms • Middle America • Central America • Thick forests • rugged mountains • coastal marshes • make it difficult to transport goods in that country

  6. Landforms • The Caribbean • The islands of the Caribbean Sea • A.K.A. = West Indies • divided into the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas

  7. Landforms • The Caribbean • The Greater Antilles • Largest islands • Cuba • Hispaniola • Puerto Rico • Jamaica • The Lesser Antilles • an archipelago • group of islands, curving from the Virgin Islands to Trinidad

  8. Landforms • South America • The Andes • world’s longest mountain system • are a cordillera and stretch along the Pacific coast of South America for about 5,500 miles (8,851 km)

  9. Landforms • South America • Tropical grasslands • known as the Llanos • stretch through eastern Colombia and Venezuela

  10. Landforms • South America • Pampas • Another well-known plain • covers much of Argentina and Uruguay • provides grazing land for beef cattle and fertile soil for growing grains

  11. Waterways • Rivers • The Amazon • Latin America’s longest river • starts in the Andes and flows east about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) to the Atlantic Ocean

  12. Waterways • Rivers • Paraná, Paraguay, and Uruguay • form Latin America’s second-largest river system • These rivers flow into the Rio de la Plata • a broad estuary, or area where river currents and ocean tides meet—which meets the Atlantic Ocean

  13. Waterways • Other Waterways • Lake Maracaibo • Venezuela • South America’s largest lake • contains some of Venezuela’s oil fields

  14. Waterways • Other Waterways • Lake Titicaca • between Bolivia and Peru • About 12,500 feet above sea level • the world’s highest lake • used by large ships.

  15. Waterways • Other Waterways • Panama Canal • Ships • use the canal to shorten travel time between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

  16. A Wealth of Natural Resources • Brazil • Latin America’s largest country • rain forests • provide timber, rubber, palm oil, and Brazil nuts

  17. A Wealth of Natural Resources • Energy Resources • Venezuela • region’s largest oil and natural gas reserves • Other Resources • Silver • mined in Mexico • Colombian • Mines the world’s finest emeralds • Chile • world’s largest exporter of copper

  18. Climate Regions Section 2

  19. Hot to Mild Climates • Tropical Climates • Tropical wet • Vast rain forest are found here

  20. Hot to Mild Climates • Tropical Climates • Amazon Basin • South America • Home to the world’s largest rain forest

  21. Hot to Mild Climates • Tropical Climates • Canopy • Trees grow close together • Tops form a dense canopy • Umbrella-like covering of leaves • So dense that sunlight seldom reaches the forest floor

  22. Hot to Mild Climates • Tropical Climates • Caribbean islands • Developed a tourism industry despite hurricanes

  23. Hot to Mild Climates • Temperate Climates • Humid subtropical climate • Short and mild winters • Long, hot, humid summers

  24. Hot to Mild Climates • Temperate Climates • Chile • Mediterranean Climate • Farmers grow large amounts of fruit

  25. Hot to Mild Climates • Dry Climates • Atacama Desert • One of the driest places on the earth

  26. Hot to Mild Climates • El Nino • A set of changes in air pressure, temperature, and rainfall • Begins in the Pacific Ocean • Waters off Peru’s coast are unusually warm

  27. Elevation and Climate • Andes • Four altitude zones of climate • Tierra Caliente • Hot land • Tierra Templada • Tierra Fria • Begins at 6,000 feet • Tierra Helada • Zone of highest elevation • Temps as low as 20°F

  28. History and Cultures of Latin America Section 1

  29. History and Government Section 1

  30. Early History • Early Native American Civilizations • Olmec • Lived in Southern Mexico • 1500 b.c.-300 b.c. • Grew corn, controlled minerals, built temples

  31. Early History • Early Native American Civilizations • Maya • Lived in the Yucatan Peninsula • 300 a.d.-900 a.d. • Skills • Astronomy • Used their knowledge of stars, moon, and planets to develop a calendar • Had a number system based on 20 • Used hieroglyphics to record history • A form of writing that uses signs and symbols

  32. Early History • Early Native American Civilizations • Aztecs • 1200 a.d. • Central Mexico • Tenochtitlan • Aztec capital

  33. Early History • Early Native American Civilizations • Inca • 1400s • South America (Peru) • Empire • Stretched more than 2,500 miles • Cuzco • Capital

  34. Early History • European Conquests • 1519 • Spanish Army • led by Hernán Cortés • Landed on Mexico’s Gulf coast • marched to Tenochtitlán, Mexico, and overtook the Aztec

  35. Early History • European Conquests • 1532 • Francisco Pizarro • attacked the Inca • killed the ruler • conquered that empire

  36. Early History • Colonial Latin America • Spain • built an empire that included: • South America • the Caribbean • Middle America • parts of present-day United States

  37. Early History • Colonial Latin America • Portugal • took control of what is today Brazil

  38. Early History • Colonial Latin America • France, Britain, and the Netherlands • overtook some Caribbean areas and parts of North America

  39. Forming New Nations • Independence • 1804 • enslaved Africans • under François-Dominique Toussaint-L’Ouverture • threw off French rule in Haiti • Haiti • became the only nation ever created as a result of a revolt by enslaved people

  40. Forming New Nations • Independence • Simón Bolívar • won freedom from the Spanish for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia

  41. Forming New Nations • Independence • 1817 • José de San Martín • liberated Chile and Argentina from Spanish rule

  42. Forming New Nations • Political and Economic Challenges • Caudillos • Ruled as dictators • Favored the wealthy over the poor

  43. Forming New Nations • The United States and Latin America • 1898 • United States and Spain • fought a war over Spanish-ruled Cuba • Spain was defeated, and Cuba became a republic under U.S. protection

  44. Forming New Nations • The United States and Latin America • 1903 • United States • helped Panama win its freedom from Colombia • gained permission to build the Panama Canal