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Septic and crystal arthritis

Septic and crystal arthritis

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Septic and crystal arthritis

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  1. Septic and crystal arthritis Jaya Ravindran Rheumatologist

  2. Case 1 • 82 year old • Admitted 2.6.08 acute on chronic knee pain 3-4 days • Recent excision of shin BCC with skin graft complicated by cellulitis • Ex Not unwell afebrile MEWS O • Warm, slightly tender knee effusion, tolerating 90 flexion • ? Wound infection started on antibiotics • CRP 187

  3. Radiological abnormality? Differential diagnosis? Further investigations? Management? Case 1

  4. Case 1 • No organisms, scanty WBC • Pyrophosphate crystals • Low dose colchicine • CRP 42

  5. Case 2 • DS 42 year old lady • PMH Crohns • Admitted 12.5.08 with onset of feeling hot and cold, D & V, headache 10 days ago • 3 days ago developed painful swelling left wrist, right knee and left ankle • SH Roadie, smoker – 10 roll-ups/day, lives with husband and son

  6. Ex unwell,T38.5, p117/min, BP 116/64, RR20/min, satn 91% air, urine nad Tender swollen and red wrist, knee and ankle CXR ‘clear’ IMP septic Plan BC, analgesia, iv antibiotics, IVI Systolic dropped to 90 systolic Na 122 CRP 285, Blood gas P02 7, PCO2 7 PH 7.4 Transferred to WGH Case 2

  7. Case 2 • Seen by rheumatologist joints aspirated • 13.5 blood cultures group A Strep, aspirate no growth, WBC • 15.5 vasculitic rash, low complement ?post Strep • 16.5 ECHO normal, CRP and joints settling • 17.5 Right pleuritic chest pain with rub

  8. Case 2 • P02 8 treat for PE as well • 21.5 CTPA cavitating consolidation right lower lobe, hilar nodes, no PE • Still spiking ?empyema – nil aspirated,, no AFB in sputum, HIV negative, awaiting WBC scan

  9. Case 3 • DB 45 year old man • PMH RA on sulphasalazine • 4 day history painful hot swollen red right big toe • Differential? • Investigations?

  10. Case 4 • 82 year old man • PMH LVF,AF, TIA, BPH • DH Aspirin, bumetanide, ramipril, digoxin, statin • Referred with acute on chronic wrist pain needing MST • Pain was so severe that he asked next door’s dog to stop barking! • WBC 13, CRP 155, Cr 143, XR OA changes

  11. Case 4 • Ex Well afebrile MEWS 0 • Tender warm swollen right wrist • Dry tap • Imp ? Crystal • Oral prednisolone • Good response but then confused, t 37.5, p116/min, 3+ blood & 1+ prot urine dip, increasing painful swelling in left wrist and toe • Diagnosis and plan?

  12. Case 4 • WBC 20, Cr 261 • MSU, BC and joint aspirated • IVI and antibiotics, MST and ramipril stopped • Uric acid crystals, no growth in aspirate • Wrists injected once presumed UTI treated • Wrists better, CRP 3, Cr 124

  13. What are other differentials for monoarticular pain?

  14. Monoarthritis - differential • Monoarticular sero-ve spondyloarthritis eg psoriatic and reactive arthritis • Monoarticular RA

  15. Monoarthritis - differential • Haemarthroses (warfarin, bleeding disorders) • Trauma – fracture, internal derangement, haemarthroses

  16. Others to think about • Osteonecrosis/AVN (steroids/alcohol/SLE) • Prosthetic joint - loosening, # or infection

  17. Others to think about • Periarticular pathology • Cellulitis

  18. Septic arthritis • 15-30 per 100,000 population • Fatal in 11% of cases in UK • Delayed or inadequate treatment leads to irreversible joint damage

  19. How do you get septic arthritis?

  20. Pathogenesis

  21. Who gets septic arthritis ?

  22. Who gets septic arthritis? • pre-existing joint disease • prosthetic joints • low SE status, IV drug abuse, alcoholism • diabetes, steroids, immunosuppression • Skin lesions e.g. ulcers, particularly in context RA often source of infection

  23. Which organisms cause septic arthritis?

  24. Which organisms? • common organisms Staphylococci or Streptococcus • Elderly & immunocompromised gram -ve organisms

  25. Which organisms? • Anaerobes more common with penetrating trauma • Pseudomonas - IV drug abusers • young adults - significant incidence gonococcal arthritis

  26. Who gets septic arthritis? • poor prognostic features: older pre-existing joint disease & presence of synthetic material within joint

  27. What are the signs and symptoms of septic arthritis?

  28. Symptoms & signs of septic arthritis • Symptoms usually present for < 2/52 • Typically hot, swollen, red tender joint with reduced range of movement, difficulty weight bearing • Night and rest pain • Large joints more commonly affected than small • majority of joint sepsis in hip or knee • Systemic upset (MEWS)

  29. Symptoms & signs of septic arthritis • In pre-existing inflammatory joint disease symptoms in affected joint(s), out of proportion to disease activity in other joints. • 10% of cases > one joint • presence of fever not reliable indicator

  30. Features of gonococcal arthritis ?

  31. Women>men Menses, pregnancy 1-3% arthritis 1day- weeks after sexual encounter Migratory (70%), Tenosynovitis (70%), monoarthritis (32%), polyarthritis (10%) Fever, Dermatitis (pustules, vesicular, haemorrhagic bullae, mac.papular) Gonococcal arthritis

  32. What investigations are useful in septic arthritis?

  33. Investigations • Synovial fluid aspiration • gram stain/m,c,s • Absence of organism does not exclude septic arthritis • polarised light microscopy (crystals) • NB suspected prosthetic joint sepsis should ALWAYS be referred to orthopaedics

  34. Investigations • Blood cultures • Significant proportion blood cultures + ve in absence of + ve synovial fluid cultures • FBC ESR & CRP • Absence of raised WBC, ESR or CRP does not exclude diagnosis of sepsis

  35. Other investigations • CRP useful for monitoring response to treatment • Urate may be normal in acute gout • U+E & LFT – prognosis and influence antibiotic regime

  36. Other tests? • Gonococcal - skin pustule - skin swab, urethral/cervical /rectal/throat swab, blood culture, joint aspirate • genitourinary or respiratory tract infection then culture sputum and CXR & MSU • If periarticular sepsis – appropriate swabs and cultures

  37. Radiology ?

  38. Imaging • Plain X rays no benefit in diagnosis but form baseline for any future joint damage. May show chondrocalcinosis (pyrophosphate arthritis). • MRI sensitive for osteomyelitis and spinal involvement

  39. Imaging • Ultrasound useful in guiding needle aspiration eg hip • White cell scanning helpful in diagnosing prosthetic sepsis

  40. What are the radiological features of infected prosthesis?

  41. Prosthetic infection

  42. Spinal infection • Discitis – with destruction end plates

  43. Management?

  44. MEWS score? • Shock? • Multi-organ failure? • RESUSCITATION

  45. Antibiotic treatment of septic arthritis • Local and national guidelines • Liaise with micro. guided by gram stain • Conventionally given iv for 2 weeks or until signs improve, then orally for around 4 weeks

  46. Joint drainage & surgical options • medical aspiration, surgical aspiration via arthroscopy or open arthrotomy • Suspected hip sepsis – early orthopaedic referral – may need urgent open debridement

  47. Recommendations specific to 1o care & emergency department • commonest hot joint to present in 1o care is 1st MTP gout • diagnosed on clinical grounds without needle aspiration or referral to hospital. (Make referral if inadequate recovery) • Some GPs aspirate & inject joints for inflammatory arthritis or osteoarthritis. If withdraw pus/unexpected cloudy fluid should send sample with patient to local emergency department

  48. Recommendations specific to 1o care & emergency department • GPs & doctors in EAU should refer patients with suspected septic arthritis to specialist with expertise to aspirate joint. • May be orthopaedic surgeon or rheumatologist • Admit if sepsis is suspected or confirmed.

  49. Summary • with a short history of a hot, swollen, tender joint (or joints) plus restriction of movement; septic arthritis until proven otherwise • If clinical suspicion high investigate & treat as septic arthritis even in absence of fever – always joint aspiration and blood cultures

  50. GOUT