Download
the aq3 system n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
THE AQ3 System PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
THE AQ3 System

THE AQ3 System

86 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

THE AQ3 System

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. THE AQ3 System THASMS: Hybrid Technology Asymmetric of Selective Membranes Separation. The World’s newest most sophisticated Water Purification and Recycling Technology

  2. TABLE OF CONTENTS • 1. INTRODUCTION • 2. THASMS AQ3 • 3 TECHNOLOGY • 3. TYPE OF EQUIPMENT & APPLICATIONS • 3.1 WHERE TO APPLY • 4. AQ3 FEATURES • 4.1 UNIQUE FEATURES • 4.2 SPECIAL FEATURES • 4.3 AQ3 SYSTEM VERSITILITY • 4.4 AQ3 SYSTEM REMINERALIZATION • 4.5 SUMMARY OF FEATURES • 5. TECHNICAL PARAMETERS • 5.1 FAQS • 6. PHOTOS

  3. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THASMS AQ3 Water is one of the most complicated and mysterious wonders of nature. The quality of human life and health depends on drinking clean detoxified water. Petr Carvan, inventor and expert from Prague's Nanotechnology Research Institute scored international success with a breakthrough invention, a technology that cleans "dead" water and turns it into excellent drinking water. And so today, the future technology AQ3, is proudly manufactured in Czech Republic. Advanced Product Labs took it one step forward and now exclusively markets it worldwide. Working together to provide solutions and clean up the world’s toxic waters, Petr continues to serve customers. There is no water system; municipal, industrial, manmade or natural on the planet that his unique recycling and purifying technology can’t help.

  4. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THASMS AQ3 AQ3 cutting-edge space technology was designed for areas with less developed infrastructure and with little technological potential. It was created to clean up and solve the world’s existing water problems, not create new ones. With pride, Petr and his team with Advanced Product Labs presents three economic systems in one, with a multi voltage device that can be connected anywhere in the world, with technology capable of producing pure drinking water. This water is manufactured strictly by a physical process not a chemical one. Actively using the cascades consisting of some positive mix, this optimally designed technology is specially adapted for extremely low pressure in the range of micro filtration, ultra filtration, nano-filtration, and optical fibers and even in a series of parallel combinations, while keeping the carbonate equilibrium in which natural waters are located. It works reliably with the spiral pressure from 1.99 bar (29 psi) to 3.79 bar (55 psi) (offered with the basic equipment). The systems can be delivered in Basic, Premium or S and Professional versions.

  5. 2. THASMS: Hybrid Technology Asymmetric of Selective Membranes Separation. Description of THASMS Asymmetric hybrid technology of selective membrane separation AQ3 reduces overall production costs while increasing product quality output – permeate. Experience with AQ3 modules in the field of membrane separation, date back almost to the beginnings of the commercial birth of this technology.

  6. AQ3 Advanced Technology Physical separation Membrane separation of AQ3 THASMS is a physical separation process in which the main reason for function is a difference in pressure between two sides of the spiral membranes. This process is characterized by the ability to separate molecules of different sizes and characteristics. Almost all industrial membrane separation processes operate in “cross-flow” regime when filtered liquid flows under pressure at high speed parallel to the membrane. The type of AQ3 THASMS of membrane exploits the non-absorbability of the material and vacuum effect for the transport of the media.

  7. AQ3 Advanced Technology Physical barrier Membrane separation system divides contaminants into two separate streams, known as the permeate and the retentate, (which doesn’t pass through the membrane.) Membrane that separates the two streams is a physical barrier with highly specific properties that lets only certain selected ingredients of processed substances passing through the membrane.

  8. AQ3 Advanced Technology • Membrane permeability • The pores of the material from which the membrane is made are so small that it is necessary to indicate their size in Angstrom (1010 m) and where there is driving force behind the passage of liquid through the membrane, is a either vacuum or pressure gradient. In fact, the pores in membranes for nano-filtration and for reverse osmosis are so small that they are practically invisible, even under electron microscope.

  9. Types of membrane separation • There are four well known categories of membranes, defined by size of the substances which are to be separated from contaminants by them. These categories are known as reverse osmosis, nano-filtration, ultra-filtration – in order of pore sizes from the smallest to the largest. AQ3 uses a scenario-parallel combination of all four types according to use, and it is call “Asymmetric hybrid technology” of selective membranes separation.

  10. Reverse osmosis (RO) • Reverse osmosis (RO) Reverse osmosis uses a most tightly membrane from all the methods of liquid separation, using the highest operated pressure and energy consumption. Basically, water is the only substance that can pass through this membrane. All other substances (salts, sugars, etc.) do not pass through this membrane.

  11. Nano-filtration (NF) • Nano-filtration (NF) Nano filtration is not as delicate as osmosis and uses membranes which are slightly larger, using lower operation pressures and is less demanding on power consumption. Nano-filtration allows the smallest ions through the membrane while larger ions and most organic compounds are retained.

  12. Ultra-filtration (UF) • Ultra-filtration functions with membranes in which the pores are larger and pressures and energy consumption are relatively low. Salts, sugars, organic acids and small peptides permeate through membrane but proteins, fats and carbohydrates do not.

  13. Membrane separation (MS) • Membrane separation can be either through vertical barrier so called “dead end” or separation in “cross-flow” arrangement. Combined separation in cross-flow arrangement provides significant benefits versus vertical separation and therefore is used in technology AQ3. Since the process fluid flows continuously over the diaphragm no sedimentation by stone mineral coating is creating which could lead to clogging and uneven flows. This process is significantly helped by the use of pulsed magnetic resonance which is an unique technology of AQ3. This allows running an automated and continuously separation process, resulting in a sustained and controlled quality of permeates. Membrane separation provides significant benefits when operate on industrial scale, when the reliability, reproducibility and operational cost are important.

  14. The advantages are: • Low total cost of production • High quality of the final permeate • Flexibility

  15. Membranes separation systems (MS)Lower cost of production • Membranes separation systems are often less expensive than many other alternative technologies. Installation cost is lower and so are energy costs. Membranes separation technology offers fewer technological steps. It delivers both a greater degree of purity and a higher overall yield. Because there is no formation during the membranes separation of sedimentary mineral rock coating, there are no extra costs associated with the removal and disposal of this waste.

  16. Membrane Technology • High quality permeate Membranes separation technology is the purest known. The separation process takes place only on the basis of the size of molecules.

  17. Flexibility Membranes separation • can be used for contaminants with a wide high range of viscosity, which are usually otherwise very difficult to treat. A large variety of different peripherals for membrane separations provides the optimization to choose a solution for each individual application. This eliminates a necessary energy cost.

  18. About AQ3 • AQ3 equipment for membrane separation is designed in a modular concept, which offers a high degree of operational flexibility since the membranes are built in modules, which are then lined up into working loops. These loops are built into an entire system. The design of the system can therefore be adapted to any needs of each owner. In case of an increase of demand, Petre and his team will easily extend and modify the system. This means that whenever an increase in demand arises, the production can be increased at relatively low additional cost.

  19. Types of Equipment & Applications • - Home unit (stationary) – solar or grid source • - Industrial unit (stationary) - solar or grid source • - Food industry (production of energy-enriched beverages, i.e. by oxygen) (Stationary) • - Grid source, gas or diesel generator • - Aerospace - recycling waste water (stationary) – on board grid source • - Mines (mobile or stationary) – solar or grid source • - Permanent outdoor (stationary – solar or grid source • - Forestry (stationary) – solar source, gas or diesel generator • - Military including submarines (mobile or stationary) – solar or grid source, gas Or diesel generator • - River – sea constructions (stationary) – solar or grid source, gas or diesel Generator • - Floating pontoons - river or seaside (mobile) – solar source, gas or diesel generator.

  20. Types of Equipment & Applications • - Firefighters (mobile or stationary) – solar or grid source, gas or diesel g. • - Leisure activities (mobile) – solar or grid source, gas or diesel g. • - RV (mobile or stationary) – solar or grid source, gas or diesel g. • - Survivalist (mobile) – solar power • - Emergency use (mobile or stationary) – solar or grid source, gas or diesel g. • - Frame , fittings, pressure gauges, check valves, solenoid valves, springs, cover of the ultraviolet lamps, UV packing converters and packing spiral modules are from the food safe stainless steel AISI 303/304 (V2A) and are preferred for the medical, pharmaceutical and food industries and maritime applications. (On request)

  21. Where to Apply • System are specially designed for filtering unknown or contaminated fresh water or brackish water sources such as streams, wells, springs, surfaces or underground rainwater tanks, slurry, pools, ponds, lakes, backwater ponds, rivers, bank filtrate, delta rivers, coastal meanders, mine water , oily water caused by spills, etc. • where is assumed that this water will be intoxicated otherwise polluted. • It does not matter whether the cause is biological, biochemical, chemical, mineral or by gas and is not chlorinated, Petr’s team can add a modification to do so if desired (optional). • The newly developed technology THSMS is, among others, intended for filtration units for villages, towns and even large areas of industrial or private sector, as well as for the regeneration of commercial waste water from textile factories, car washes and reduction of microbes in dental units and equipment of all kinds (absorbs COD, NES, etc.). • Neutralization of waste water from regeneration is not required

  22. Where to apply • THSMS units remove from water up to 98 – 99% of mineral salts and more than 90% of organic matter during the first stage separation. • Devices of this type produce de-mineralized water without the use of aggressive chemicals (HAS and NaOH). • THSMS units are used in cleaning water for steam boilers, in district heating systems, hospitals, dialyses centers, laboratories, in the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry for the production of process water and often in air-conditional systems. • Further uses are in production of sterilized apyrogenic, carbonated, distilled water for injection and water for alcohol. all components are NSF certified – food/ NSF/ANSI STANDRD 51.58

  23. Quadruple sterilization control of drinking water • It completely eliminates secondary contamination: • - It captures bacteriological and biological material by spiral membranes and molecular level • - It aggressively sterilized by using ultraviolet radiation during the production and the distribution of bout – technological as well as drinking water • - It captures and disposes of death bodies of bacteria, viruses, spores, molds, yeast and cysts • - It creates a more natural and environment for biocide TMS optimizer The aim is to meet the most stringent hygienic security environment for primarily biological and microbiological parameters of drinking and technological water.

  24. Joint Seals • All joint seals are manufactured from Teflon, PVC primer and glue (for distribution TUV and all these components carry the appropriate certification from suppliers NSF/ANSI STANDARD 51/58). • The device has an internationally recognized certificate of compliance from the CE Conformity consulting, JanovnadNisou, dated 9.10.2009, number/Nr./No.: 01102009/V

  25. Certificates • The device has an European and worldwide accepted certificate from the Institute for Testing and Certification in Zlin – Czech Republic. • In the proposal we have strictly followed in accordance with CSN 75 7111 Drinking water Act. No. 306/2000 Coll. • And the Ministry of Health Decree No. 376/2000 Coll. Which among other things, requires from 1.1.2001, that drinking water contains a minimum calcium content of 30 mg/l, (1.75 grains/gallon), magnesium 10 mg/ l (0.58 grains/gallon) and highlights the importance of biogenic water values, which should be approximately between 300 to 600 mg (4.63-9.26 grains) of various minerals, including essential elements generally considered to be optimal value of dissolved solids per liter of drinking water.

  26. Certificates • The permeate output is processed in accordance with the principle and in compliance with the organoleptic properties of water that are detectable by human senses, such as temperature, color, opacity, transparency, smell, taste. • Requirements for drinking water and hot water quality are set out in Decree No. 252/2004 Coll., laying down the health requirements for drinking and hot water and the frequency and scope of drinking water checks. • It includes 10 indicators and their hygienic limits for 52 indicators and their hygienic limits of their levels of physical, chemical and organoleptic.

  27. Certificates • The designing this filter machine took into account the more stringent requirements placed on the quality of water for infants. • These requirements are prescribed by the Decree No. 275/2004 Coll. and the quality, safety and procedure of the purification are placed on the bottled water. The production of bottled spring water and bottled water for infants can only use a protected ground water source of which the yield, composition, temperature and other essential characteristic can not exceed the limits of natural fluctuation.

  28. Requirements for Infant Bottled Water • Infant bottled water – designed for a permanent consumption by children up to one year of age may not be chlorinated, in case it is carbonated by CO2 it has to be boiled over and pH must not be lower than 6, the contents of dissolved minerals must be less than 1 g/l (58.41 grains/gallon).

  29. Requirements for Table water • – the purification has to be done by physical means, must not be chlorinated and the content of dissolved minerals less than or equal to 1g/l (58.41 grains/gallon). • - Carbonated water – is a drink prepared from drinking water by adding at least 4mg/l (0.23 grains per gallon) of CO2

  30. Requirements for Table mineral water • Table mineral water – has no significant healing effects, is suitable for occasional consumption and acceptable minimum contents of dissolved minerals can vary from 1-6 g/l (58.41 – 350.50grains/gallon).

  31. Natural spring water • Natural spring water – has proven healing quality, the content of dissolved minerals is usual over 3.5g/l (54.01 grains/gallon) with excess of nitrogen and magnesium and should not be consumed for longer than 1 month. • Table water – replaced by the term spring water, lightly carbonated the content of dissolved substances in the 500mg/l (29.20 grains/gallon).

  32. Possible deployment of THASMS AQ3: • Military – in military field hospitals, camps, on the battle field, peace keeping missions, etc. • Humanitarian operations - can be used to supply the pure water in the refuge camps, sea rescue, oil rig accident (tankers) • Civil defense – a wide range of deployment during natural disasters, in areas affected by earthquakes or floods, the disruption of traditional infrastructure and contamination of drinking water, the ecological disasters, etc.. • Public sector – installing the pump, filter and distribution center in artesian wells in the deserts, semi-deserts, savannahs and in the Middle East, Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, South America, etc. …. • for individual houses, factories, as well as villages, towns and technology units…

  33. Possible deployment of THASMS AQ3: • As mobile industrial equipment for washing windows, shop windows, cars, boats, motorcycles, watering gardens with salt water input and output of fresh water, etc… • As an industrial desalination facility of the saline desert ground water (wells), sea water, smaller apartment complexes , processing plants, smaller water supply network and brown water for watering gardens, washing, etc…. • As mobile industrial equipment for desalination of sea water on the oil rigs, yachts, ferries and tankers as commercial fresh water, etc…..

  34. Membrane technology • Examples of use Membrane separation can be exploited in a variety of processes. Our experience with the system AQ3 goes back to the mid nineties shortly after the separation membrane was introduced for commercial use.

  35. Benefits of thasms technology • Using technology AQ3 THASMS we can successfully separate for instance: Antibiotics -Isolation and purification of antibiotics of various types – lactam, amino glucosidic, polypeptide, tetracycline and macrolide. • The reason for this application is increased separation efficiency and higher quality products. Enzymes -Concentration, purification and desalination after fermentation of enzymes. • Another use is for the isolation of enzymes of animals or plant tissues. Higher concentration and purity is reached with minimum loss of activity. Dextrans

  36. For the beer industry • Concentration and purification in a single process at low cost, plus the removal of pyrogens for higher product quality and reduced contamination problems. • Yeast extract -Concentration and purification with recycling of the permeate. High purity while minimizing the operating costs. • Beer -Reduction of alcohol content by 8 to 10 times with assuring the quality comparable to regular beer with low operating cost. Filtration of beer with our system is an alternative to traditional silicon filters and we offer high quality beer without the need for disposal of waste filter material. • Sterile filtration before bottle filling ensures a longer shelf live without the disadvantages of thermal treatment.

  37. Applications in the food and drink industry • Food polysaccharides - Concentration and purification of substances such as carrageenan, agar, agarose, xanthan gum and pectin with reusing the permeate. • Inexpensive, reliable way to remove water and low molecular impurities. • Juices - Clarification and concentration of apple, strawberry, orange, currant pear, hawthorn, pineapple and juice of date. • Obtaining high quality products at low operating costs and minimal use of additives. • Eggs -Concentration and purification of eggs whites and whole eggs. • Draining egg whites of water prior to drying. Used for delicate processing and high quality products.

  38. Applications in the food and drink industry • Sugar -Removal of turbidity and discoloration of sugar juice. -The concentration of sugar solutions. • Process is environmentally friendly, resulting in highly homogeneous products. • Animal blood plasma -Concentration and purification of blood plasma and reusing reverse permeate. • -Used for high quality product at low operating temperature. • Gelatin - Fractionation, concentration and purification. Used for delicate processing to prevent denaturation. • Vinegar -Compensation of wide range of levels in traditional cleansing/filtration process. • Eliminates auxiliary filtration steps. These specific applications are enhanced by continues development and expansion of our know-how in these areas. • Our experience with membrane separation processes can bring significant benefits to wide range of industrial applications.

  39. AQ3 Features • The system is using only one, substantially modified high flow, low-load micro DC pump with bypass protection against destruction with a slightly self-priming effect up to 2.5 m (8.20 ft) • able to pump up to 302 liters per day (g/pd 79.77) under negative pressure (vacuum). • can also provide a suction inlet hose with a cut off valve with the watering equipment (optional). • With a positive inlet pressure up to 4 bars (58 PSI) the pump is able consistently transport into the system up to 2592 liters per day (g/pd 684.73)

  40. More features • The system has visual controls: • Pink LED – pump in operation, the flashing red LED – decreased inlet pressure (pump off), • Green LED – full tank (the device is in a idle state, pump is off, standby mode). We can use alternately maximum external input pressure up to 4 bar (58 PSI) or pressure regulator. • The system can be also operated even without the pump turn on where there is pressure gradient. Although with measurable decrease in water production it uses significantly less power. • Use of the solar panels. In cases where the contaminated source of water is a few dozen meters away from the filtration plant, the additional submersible pump (24 VDC) with check valve and transparent suction hose can be added. • This speeds up the installation of the unit and significantly increases production output per/hour of decontaminated water. • It also retains the organoleptic properties of water that are detectible by human senses, such as temperature, color opacity, transparency, odor and taste. In the case of a rotting stale source without oxygen, • It is possible to add a system of primary aeration of oxygen. • Contaminated water source is revived. The filtration systems are then able to better process and prepare the water for secondary processing and conversion into pure structured water.

  41. Unique Features of Nano-filtration • Unique Features Nano-filtration is used for: • conditioning of drinking water, • reduction of sulfates, chlorides, fluorides, • and partial water softening without using regeneration chemicals and for examples for reduction of sulfates and iron in ground water. • It is also beneficial for treatment for industrial water, partial softening, reduction of turbidity and contaminants from surface water (metallurgical and paper industry). • Our concept combined the advantages of RO and NF in one product that is able programmatically set the reduction level of undesirable substances according to actual needs as well as re-mineralized and disinfect. • Basic use of these low noise system (44dB) which do not interfere with sleep (measured at distance 1m – 3.2 ft) is stationary mostly for family houses, cottages, small businesses, bistros, pubs or mobile homes, boats camps, etc.

  42. Parallel modular logic blocs • we can supply and connect these modules into parallel modular logic blocs with a virtually unlimited increase in daily capacity. • With these modules we supply advanced controls, measuring control elements in the external electrical switchboards. • It is also possible, based on individual customer needs, to build a non-modular system. • In the Profi version, the passive electronic components are replaced by PLC regulator (programmable, relay with PID regulator) – proportional integral and derivatives controller. • For an extra charge, we can supply LAN or GPS module connected to a central, international services and information management system. • By using Power Linux platform we gain for major benefits: competitive product, responsibility, source code and a great technology. Power Linux delivered more economical, a more efficient, more reliable customer-friendly solution.

  43. Further upgrades • In case of the need to safe space we can enhance the basic model to twice the nominal values. • We can multiply the integrated vacuum pump, double up automatic valve, increase the pre-filtration, add up to 8 hydrophobic spiral wound modules, enhance high pressure micro-flow pump and add stainless steel pressure storage tank (additional cost). • For special purposes it is possible to enclose technology into sealed boxes with connecting couplings, the battery source, pre-filtration, filter machine, storage tanks and distribution equipments (extra).

  44. AQ3 Special Features • The main components are manufactured according to ISO 9001. • Switchboard , wiring and electrical parts have appropriate certifications and the • splash cover IP65 complies with an international standards grounding PEN, • the scope of supply is 108-240 VAC_ 48-62Hz (from PE N to PE and N, TN – CS, TN – C/TN-S) , • or are equipped with components designed for safe voltage 12 to 24 VDC or universal - UNI POWER (with the CE, RoHS, UL, VDE, CSA, FCC, IEC,EN, DIN, TUV).

  45. AQ3 Special Features • Fully automated equipment and electronics are custom designed, manufactured, programmed, assembled and certified in the EU, • Made exclusively from Czech, English, and German and American parts. • The equipment is calibrated and tested for quality of all the components. • This equipment is practically the quietest in the world, in fact excels, reaching the noise level up to 44 dB, which is bellow the human whisper and thus it actively contributes to a higher standard and better quality of life.

  46. About its Filtration system • The filtration equipment from AQ3 is non-vibrating, non- resonating and super compact, economical, efficient and is manufactured with energy saving technology “solid state product”. • This equipment for purifying water from unknown sources helps significantly reduced its carbon footprint not only during manufacturing but also by super-low energy requirements. • This carbon footprint is virtually undetectable – 0. For these reasons it takes a part in the process of development “green technology and environment friendly products.”

  47. Thinking of Our Environment • Our technology of the future is already active in the fight against the global warming, air pollution and enlarging ozone hole. • Our equipment has an extremely long longevity and is fully recyclable. • We respect the system of “fair trade” which gives a chance for a dignify life to entire population on the earth.

  48. Treats most Sickness Academy • Spiral wound hydrophobic modules for system of technological and potable water can handle 30% inflow and pressure with a turbo effect and has integrated protection against backpressure. • sterile semi-permeable membranes with integrated polymer hyaluronic acid, in combination with polysulphones, polyamides, ethylene, propylene, polypropylene, Teflon, styrex and elastomers, increasing elasticity and sterility, reducing resistance and laminar viscosity, leads to the destruction of a wide range of psychrophylic, mesophilic, pathogenic (disease- causing) or coliform bacteria causing diseases such as typhoid, cholera, salmonellosis, hepatitis, infectious diarrhea – i.e. Typhoid-paratyphoid, Vibriocholeraeasiaticae, Legionellapneumophila, Lambliaintestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Salmonella enteritis, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcusfaecalis, faeciumavium, Clostridium perfringens , Pseudomonas aeruginosa. • It accordingly suppresses the growth of the algae Scenedesmussubscipitatus type and Selenastrumcapricorrmutum, etc., and their separation into waste.

  49. Treats most Sickness Academy • It eliminates virtually all inorganic toxic substances, chemical and gaseous pollution, biological, biochemical and organic contamination such as THMs (chloroform), DBCP, lindane, TCEs (trichloroethylene), PCEs (tetrachlorethylene), carbon tetrachloride. • It is focused on the separation of toxic dioxins, carcinogenic herbicides, pesticides, DDT, PCBs, Agent Blue (acid dimethylArshinov), antrax isolates carcinogenic afloxin. • These are among the mycotoxins, which are secondary products of various strains of fungi. They are one of the most toxic natural substances in humans, among the other things can cause genetic changes that affect the immune system and promote the development of cancer and many other diseases.

  50. AQ3 System VersatilityZeolith • In the event of deployment of this filtering device for urban or man-chlorinated or putrid water we integrate into the input system (contaminated) replaceable cartridge type KDF- 55/coconut/carbon/Zeolith, to reduce hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, lead, arsenic, cadmium, iron, pesticides, heavy metal, mercury, water hardness. • Interchangeable calcium and magnesium ions are bound to the sodium ions. Zeolith assists to detoxification of fresh water and guaranties creation of pure and biologically safe water and assures the creation and preservation of water’s biological balance. Zeolith is a natural mineral with a high ion to inventers exchange ability, binding toxic ammonia, phosphates, and toxic substances and is also active absorber, i.e. electro-statically attracted due to the hollow areas, poisonous substances and products of decay processes. • Due to its high catalytic activity, it accelerates natural degradation of contaminants. It extracts important nutrients for algae formation from water. The water takes away important nutrients for algae formation. • Zeolith is a high quality bio-catalyst, respectively filter media or molecular sieve for biological and mechanical filtration in both freshwater and marine tanks and in ponds, pools and brackish waters. • Zeolith is a hard natural stone with many pores, cavities and channels. It is the material of volcanic origin and its molecular structure is very regular.