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What is classification?

What is classification?

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What is classification?

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  1. What is classification? • the grouping of objects or information based on similarities http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=7339&rendTypeId=4 http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/1053/55071543.JPG

  2. Animal Classification http://www.saigan.com/kidscorner/animalsvlove/anib.jpg

  3. What is taxonomy? • the branch of biology that groups or names organisms based on the study of their different characteristics

  4. Aristotle’s System of Classification • Greek Philosopher (384 -322 BC) • Grouped plants and animals • Plants: Herbs, Shrubs and Trees • Animals: on land, in the air, or in water • Based on structural characteristics • Example: classified birds, bats and flying insects together http://www.kidsbiology.com/images/classification_aristotle.jpg

  5. Linnaeus’ System of Classification • Lived:1707-1778 • GOAL: To classify all known organisms • Used flower parts to assign different categories (species, genus, order, class) • Based on morphology (physical and structural similarities) • Biologists realized that bats and birds can both fly, but bats have hair and produce milk for their young and now classified as mammals http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/images/linnaeus.jpg

  6. Binomial Nomenclature • Bi- means 2 • Nom- means name

  7. Binomial Nomenclature • In Latin or Greek • Genus species • Genus means plural or genera and consists of a group of similar species • Species describes a characteristic of the organism • Genus is capitalized and species is lowercase • If written (underline) or if typed (italics)

  8. Example: European Honeybee: Apis mellifera http://slog.thestranger.com/2007/03/where_have_all_the_bumblebees_gone

  9. Scientific Name • Genus species is the combination of genus and species • Species alone is just the description of a characteristic • Characteristics include: size, color (of body, feet, wings)

  10. Examples of current scientific names • Quercus: Oak trees which produce acorns • Red Oak: Quercus rubra • Willow Oak: Quercus phellos • Quercus: oak, oak-tree; garland of oak leaves; • Rubra: red, ruddy, painted red (Rubrum Mare => Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf) • Phellos: corky - bark has rough, corky ridges http://www.jvh-nurseries.com/language/multilingual/plants/list/quercus%20rubra.jpg http://www.fast-growing-trees.com/images/Oak-Willow-1-220w.jpg

  11. Biological Classification based on: • Relationships between organisms • Fossil record interpretation • Similarities in structural and chemical makeup • External and Internal structures • Geographical distribution • Chemical makeup

  12. Why Latin? • Common names (honeybee) varies from country to country due to language differences • Universal language between scholars • Most scholars were scientists • Scientific names are universal

  13. The Six Kingdoms 17.2

  14. Types of characteristics used in classification: • Morphology • Embryology • Chromosomes • Biochemistry • Physiology • Phylogeny • Biosystematics

  15. Morphology • Structure and anatomy; Reflects evolutionary relationships

  16. Morphology • Example: Wings of a bird and wings of an insect arise from different tissue within the embryo; Bones of the forelimb in a lizard are similar to those in the forelimb of the cat http://mysite.verizon.net/vzepz6a9/biorefweb/homologous_structures.jpg

  17. Homologous Structures having the same relative position, value, or structure http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/homobones.jpg

  18. Homologous Structures http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~bio336/Bio336/Lectures/Lecture5/pentadactyl.jpg

  19. Vestigial Structures a bodily part or organ that is small and degenerate or imperfectly developed in comparison to one more fully developed in an earlier stage of the individual, in a past generation, or in closely related forms http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/magazines/tj/images/v14n2_vestigial_structures.gif http://www.vidyavahini.ernet.in/shishya/products/AcademicContent/CBSE/XII/Zoology/xii%20relationship%20among%20organisms/Relationship%20among%20organisms_files/image005.gif

  20. Embryology • Development of plants and animal cells still inside seed or egg http://www.sspx.org/IMAGES/Miscellaneous/embryonic_comparison455x220.jpg http://www.biologyreference.com/images/biol_01_img0111.jpg

  21. Chromosomes • Structure enclosed in the DNA of a cell, which carries genetic information; Chromosome number and shape (circular or linear) http://www.ams.org/featurecolumn/images/chromosome.gif

  22. Phylogenetic Tree http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_3846_404_1617_43/http%3B/public-content%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ecological_issues/genetic_biodiversity/phylogenetic_trees_intro/tree.gif

  23. Cladogram http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/patterns_intro.gif

  24. Biochemistry • Chemical make-up of the body and its systems; Metabolism; Sequence of nucleotide bases (DNA); Comparing: Proteins, amino acids sequences, DNA and RNA

  25. Physiology • Biological function of how the organism works; Bacteria: Fermentation of sugar (lactose), Uses citric acid as their sole source of carbon; Organisms may look similar, but different based on physiology http://www.latech.edu/tech/engr/bme/gale_classes/physiology/physiology%20picture.jpg

  26. Phylogeny • Evolutionary history; Line of evolutionary descent; How organisms have evolved; Characteristics based upon the same characteristics (by ancestry); GOAL: to produce classification system that is easy to use and informative regarding patterns of evolution.

  27. Biosystematics • Reproductive compatibility and gene flow; Classification hierarchy; Determined by similar characteristics; Characteristics: structural, chromosomal, or molecular feature distinguishing one group from another

  28. Know the classification hierarchy: • Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species • Least Similar……to……Most Similar

  29. Classification Hierarchy General Groups Contains like Phyla King Kingdom Contains like Classes Phylum Phillip Class Came Contains like Orders Order Over Contains like Families Family For Contains like Genera Great Genus Contains like Species Spaghetti Species Specific Groups Contains one group or multiple sub species

  30. Animalia • Eukaryotic (has cell nucleus); motile; multi-cellular; no cell walls or chlorophyll; internal cavity for digestion of nutrients http://www.kingore.com/animalia-f.jpg

  31. Chordata • Dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord, and pharyngeal pouches

  32. Mammalia • Warm-blooded; mammary glands; more or less covered with hair; well-developed brain http://www.feenixx.com/science/images/a151-mammals_poster.jpg

  33. Primate • Good brain development; opposable thumb; sometimes big toes; lacking claws, scales, horns and hooves http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/e/e5/180px-PrimateFeet.jpg http://updatecenter.britannica.com/eb/image?binaryId=52984&rendTypeId=4

  34. Non-Human Primates http://investigate.conservation.org/ImageCache/IB/content/images/primates/primates_5fmap_2ejpg/v1/image-data/1/primates_5fmap.jpg

  35. Hominidae • Limb anatomy suitable for upright stance and bipedal locomotion http://updatecenter.britannica.com/eb/image?binaryId=79536&rendTypeId=4

  36. Bipedal Locomotion http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=55495&rendTypeId=4

  37. Homo • Maximum brain development (particular portions); Hand anatomy suitable for making tools

  38. Homo sapiens • Body proportion of modern humans; speech centers of brain well-developed; sapiens means “wise”

  39. Hierarchy

  40. Definitions That lack a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Organisms that have nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Having or consisting of a single cell Having or consisting of more than one single cell Makes its own food from energy taken from the sun Gains energy from eating other organisms

  41. Six Kingdoms P= Prokaryotic E=Eukaryotic U= Unicellular M=Multicellular H= Heterotroph A=Autotroph Bacteria, Cyanobacteria Prokaryotic Heterotroph or Autotroph Unicellular Heterotroph or Autotroph Clostridium Prokaryotic Unicellular Euglena, Amoeba, Paramecium Unicellular and Multicellular Heterotroph or Autotroph Eukaryotic Mushrooms, Bracket fungi, Bread mold yeast Eukaryotic Unicellular and Multicellular Heterotroph Non-vascular, vascular Eukaryotic Autotroph Multicellular Invertebrates, vertebrates Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotroph

  42. Archaebacteria http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/Cheraw%20Intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyICP/KingdomArchaebacteria.jpg

  43. Eubacteria http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/Cheraw%20Intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyICP/KingdomEubacteria.jpg

  44. Protista http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/Cheraw%20Intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyICP/KingdomProtista.jpg

  45. Fungi http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/Cheraw%20Intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyICP/KingdomFungi.jpg

  46. Plantae http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/Cheraw%20Intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyICP/KingdomPlantae.jpg

  47. Animalia http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/Cheraw%20Intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyICP/KingdomAnimalia.jpg