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A level Geography Tectonic activity and hazards

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A level Geography Tectonic activity and hazards

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  1. A level GeographyTectonic activity and hazards PowerPoint presentation by Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF)UK Schools Team: Mary Doherty and Severa von Wentzel March 2013

  2. MSFGeography Working Group MSF would like to thank the members of the working group for their contributions and help in developing these materials: Janet Carlsson of Alleyn's School Adam Thomas former MSF Logistician Ed Jennings of Hayes School Bromley John Lyon of the Geographical Association Nicky Martin of Coloma Girls Convent School Croydon Rick Vasconcellos of Acland Burghley School Camden Jo Woolley of Dulwich College

  3. This PowerPoint • Tectonic Activity is presented as a PowerPoint Presentation to facilitate use by teachers. The footer on many slides includes Note for teachers. • It is anticipated that teachers will use slide sorter and select the slides appropriate to their students and their specifications and develop a customised slideshow. • For teaching and learning, view as a slide show to benefit from animation • When planning, teachers will find it helpful to start from the normal view which shows the footers and the Note for teachers. • Teachers can click to videos, websites etc. directly from the slides when in the slide show mode.

  4. Guide to this presentation Referencesto teaching specifications. Definitions in violet Action for students Further info Video Direct quote Key Link to appendix A Back to contents Contents K Contents

  5. Organisation of this Presentation .

  6. Contents PART I Organisation and guide to this presentation Awarding body specifications Your research, case studies and writing Exemplar slides for your research Starting your case studies PART II - Section One Tectonic hazards and causes Event, hazard or disaster? Defining tectonic events and hazards Seismic waves Primary and secondary effects of earthquakes Plate tectonics, GPS PART II - Section Two Tectonic Hazards: Physical impacts Event Profiles Tectonic impacts Mind map exercise Physical factors Human factors Fault action

  7. Contents (cont’d) PART II - Section Three Tectonic hazards: human impacts Geophysical and hydro-meteorological hazards and trends Why do people live in tectonically active areas? Dregg’s Disaster Model Disaster Risk Equation Specific hazard impacts: human and economic costs Exemplar table for your research: hazard impacts over time Haiti (2010) Earthquake Prediction PART II - Section Four Responses to tectonic hazards Coping with tectonic hazard Haiti housing crisis action Insight into humanitarian work The work of a MSF logistician Cholera and GIS Social Media Disaster Risk Reduction Early warning Appendix International humanitarian System Further Info on Haiti

  8. AQA Unit 3: Seismicity The causes and main characteristics of earthquakes: • focus and epicentre; seismic waves and earthquake measurement. • Tsunamis – characteristics and causes. Two case studies of recent (ideally within the last 30 years) seismic events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world. In each case, the following should be examined: • the nature of the seismic hazard; • the impact of the event; • management of the hazard and responses to the event. Contents

  9. OCR A2 Geography: Global issues What are the hazards associated with earthquake and volcanic activity? Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are caused by plate tectonics and bring distinctive impacts to an area and these vary from place to place. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have a range of environmental and social impacts on the areas affected, which create a range of human responses to the hazard. The study of an earthquake and of a volcanic eruption to illustrate the: • tectonic processes involved in creating these hazards; • scale and types of impacts (environmental, social and economic), together with the concept of primary (initial impacts – destruction, casualties, landslides, fires) and secondary impacts (including disease, infrastructure problems, resettlement); • human reaction in both the short term (emergency rescue) and long term (planning & management). Why do the impacts on human activity of such hazards vary over time and location? The degree of impact on an area reflects its level of economic and technological development as well as the population density. Impacts can vary over time from immediate to long term. The study of contrasting examples to illustrate a: • contrast between countries at either end of the development continuum and between rural and urban areas, to compare the impacts of, and reactions to, at least two contrasting types of earth hazards; • comparison of impacts over short and long time periods for at least two contrasting types of earth hazards. Contents

  10. OCR A2 Geography: Global issues How can hazards be managed to reduce their impacts? There are various ways to manage or reduce the impacts of hazards. The study of different approaches to managing earth hazards to illustrate: • the extent to which earth hazards are predictable; • the management strategies used to reduce the possible impact of a hazard; • the effectiveness of managing earth hazards. Key Concepts: • The nature of hazards varies with location. • The nature of hazards changes over time and space. • Earth hazards consist of a variety of interdependent and interconnected activities and processes. • Physical geography and human activity are interdependent and their interaction can produce hazards. • The impact of such hazards varies over time and given location. • Populations and environments respond in a variety of ways to hazards. • The management of hazards results in opportunities and challenges. Associated Skills: • Research into hazard events • Analysis of a variety of types of image • Map work at a variety of scales, eg hazard mapping • Statistical analysis, eg analysing patterns and severity of hazard • Use and application of GIS and other modern technology, eg forecasting of earthquakes and eruptions Contents

  11. Assessment objectives . Contents

  12. Your research and writing Part I Contents

  13. Synoptic research unit with case studies • This unit provides flexibility in your study of geography. • You will learn subject content and develop your learning skills, particularly, selection and analytical skills. • You will study this unit for several months.* • This is a synoptic unit that stresses the interrelation of specific issues to overall themes in geography. Contents

  14. Edexcel global synoptic content Your investigation of tectonic hazards, challenges and responses will need to highlight: • Places, people and power and • Risks, vulnerability and patterns. Source: Dunn, Cameron and Kim Adams, “A2 Geography Advice for students” endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates. http://www. hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf Contents

  15. The synoptic element of each enquiry question Distil big concepts, implications and influences of tectonic activity and geography by looking at social, economic, political and environmental factors. These factors help organize and evaluate information around people, places and power. • Social –about people, quality of life, health, education and prosperity • Economic –about money, work, industry, jobs and prospects • Political – about power, different viewpoints, policy and associated decisions • Environmental – about landscape, plants, animals, water, air and resources Source: Dunn, Cameron and Kim Adams, “A2 Geography Advice for students” endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates.; http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf Contents

  16. Synoptic content and MEDCs and LEDCs To compare and contrast case studies from MEDCs and LEDCs (more and less economically developed countries), use pairs such as: • Positive and negative • Primary and secondary • Directandindirect • Short and long term • Human and physical • Micro and macro Further info on more and less economically developed countries – contrasts in economic and human development, development indicators, statistics and correlations and indices:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/development/contrasts_development_rev1.shtml Source: Dunn, Cameron and Kim Adams, “A2 Geography Advice for students” endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates.; http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf Contents

  17. Your research Action for students: • Start an “Earthquakes” folder for your research and case studies. 2. Throughout your study extract the key information about the tectonic event and retain the findings and maps in your folder. • Remember to add references (sources) for the work of others and to add definitions for key terms by compiling a glossary of definitions in your folder. Contents

  18. Case studies in this presentation The Haiti Earthquake (2010) and Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011) will be the main point of comparison in your research. Earthquakes such as Sichuan, China (2008), L’Aquila, Italy (2009) and Van, Turkey (2011) also feature. In this presentation exemplar slides in the introduction and information for your research in subsequent sections will guide you through the process, leaving the active research and case studies to you. Contents

  19. Action for students: Label the map to show Haiti, Dominican Republic, major towns and bodies of water Source: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/caribb/special/caribout.htm Contents

  20. Action for students: Label the map to show Japan, major towns, bodies of water and neighbouring countries. Source: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/caribb/special/caribout.htm Contents

  21. Your study, research, written notes and examination Action for students: Writing skills: • Plan and stick to your organisation with introduction, main body and conclusion linking back to the question. • Apply theories, models and graphs, for example, event profiles. • Include good definitions and sources. Further info: The Geographical Association’s “A2 Examinations: Developing your skills in extended writing” http://www.slideserve.com/elsa/a2-examinations-developing-your-skills-in-extended-writing Dunn, C. and K. Adams’ “A2 Geography Advice for students”endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates. http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf Do not describe only. Be clear what the command words expect you to do: • Discuss • Evaluate • Critically examine You will need to include: • Role of plate margins • Causes, maps and case studies • Impacts on landscape • Impacts on people • Responses and issues Get to know key words: • Factors • Impacts • Challenges Contents

  22. Sources • Who is the author? How does the author’s role or job such as academic, lobbyist, businessman, politician relate to the topic? Consider North Korea and Amnesty International presenting on the same issue, for example. • Is it a primary or secondary source? How reliable is it? • Does the website verify what it publishes or is it an open forum where anything can be posted? Who owns and contributes to it? • Is the information up to date? Contents

  23. Question statistics • Who collected the numbers? Using what method and for what reason? • Simply because they are published doesn’t make them facts. Many are actually estimates. • Location matters. Collecting statistics in remote rural areas of developing countries or densely populated urban settlements, for example, can be difficult if they have been collected at all. A hazard or disaster event adds complexity. • Numbers can be political. There may advantages to overstating or understating numbers. • Statistics need to be collected in the same way to be compared. Contents

  24. Schemata for reportwriting Contents

  25. Humanitarian information Médecins Sans Frontières works in and Relief Web and Alert.net report on many emergencies, including ignored or forgotten ones. Médecins Sans Frontières/ Doctors Without Borders: http://www.msf.org.uk MSF is an independent international medical humanitarian organisation that provides emergency aid in more than 60 countries to people affected by armed conflict, epidemics, natural or man-made disasters or exclusion from healthcare. Reliefweb: http://www.reliefweb.int “ReliefWeb is…source for timely, reliable and relevant humanitarian information and analysis…to help you make sense of humanitarian crises worldwide.”(reliefweb.int) Alert.net: http://www.trust.org/alertnet/ Humanitarian news website covering crises worldwide, including “hidden crises” Contents

  26. Exemplar slides for your research Part I Contents

  27. Exemplar Slide on seismicity past to present:Historical seismicity in Japan March 2011 Since 1900 The earthquake on March 11, 2011, marked with a gold star, took place around the same location as the the magnitude 7.2 earthquake on March 9, 2011, thus the earlier one was redefined as a foreshock. In the cluster, there were 3 earthquakes greater than magnitude 6 before the main shock and another 14 in the first 6 hours after. The aftershocks intensity decreased with time since the main shock and followed a predictable pattern. : USGS Further info on a detailed USGS poster on “Seismicity of the Earth 1900—2007, Japan and Vicinity” click on: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1083/d/ K

  28. Earthquake Location:Coordinates for Tohoku, Japan (2011) Location: 130 km (80 miles) east of Sendai, Honshu, Japan and 373 km (231 miles) northeast of Tokyo, Japan. Source: USGS Contents

  29. Exemplar Country Profile:Japan (2011) Country profile: • Island nation in East Asia in the Pacific Ocean • Third largest economy in the world • Politically stable with world-class critical infrastructure: physical assets that serve as foundation for effective governance*, economy and civil society. • Capital: Tokyo • Population: 126.5 million (UN, 2011) • Very high life expectancy at birth, one of the oldest populations in the world (CIA World Factbook) • Most structures built to resist earthquake shaking * Governance: security, civil service, public management, core infrastructure, corruption and legal and regulatory reforms. Contents

  30. Exemplar Template:Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011) Date and time: Friday, 11 March 2011 at 5:46 UTC* Location: Japan, near northeast coast of Honshu Epicentre: 130km east of Sendai Magnitude: 9.0 on Richter scale Speed of Onset: Foreshocks and rapid main shock, aftershocks Duration: Short Areal extent: Extremely large area Map: USGS summary map on following slide Plates: Pacific plate subducting under Eurasian plate. Subduction zone very seismically active. Convergent margin, fairly high convergence rate. Earthquake shallow at the Japan trench. Earthquake: 4th largest in the world since 1900 and largest in Japan since recording began 130 years ago (USGS) History of Earthquakes: Japan trench subduction zone has had 9 events 7+ on the scale since 1973. 20% of world’s earthquakes take place in Japan. Risk profile: Country ranked 1st worldwide for human and economic exposure to cyclones and earthquakes, 1st (economic) and 2nd (human) for tsunamis and very high for drought, flood and landslides (Prevention web) Key points: Tsunami, Fujinuma dam ruptured, Fukushima Daichii nuclear accident. References: IRIS:http://www.iris.edu/news/events/japan2011/ BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific 14918801 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific 12711226 Prevention web: http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/st tistics/risk.php?iso=jpn *Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) – primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time, closely related successors to Greenwich (GMT) mean time and for most purposes synonymous with GMT. Unlike GMT, UTC is precisely scientifically defined. Contents

  31. Annotated images:Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011) Burning oil refinery in Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture. New York Times Some of the burning houses swallowed by tsunami in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture in eastern Japan. Los Angeles Times

  32. Offset ocean floor causes tsunami waves AP Waves crashes over Natori, Miyagi Prefecture. Water and debris washed away houses in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture. Contents New York Times

  33. Starting your case studies PART I Contents

  34. Starting your Haiti case study Action for students: Using the websites on the following slides: • Develop a template similar to the Japanese exemplar slides for your section on Haiti. 2. Haiti is situated near to two tectonic plates: record for your research the names of the plates and explain how these plates caused the earthquake. 3. Draw a sketch of Haiti’s location and the two plates. Contents

  35. Haiti’s country profileand tectonics COUNTRY PROFILE: • CIA World Factbook http://search.yahoo.com/search?p=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cia.gov%2Flibrary%2Fpublications%2Fthe-world-factbook%2Fgeos%2Fha.html&ei=UTF-8&fr=moz35 (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html) • UNICEF Statistics http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/haiti_statistics.html • BBC Country Profile http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_profiles/1202772.stm HAITI TECTONICS: • “The Haiti Earthquake in Depth” http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100113/full/news.2010.10.html • “Anatomy of a Caribbean Earthquake” http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122531261 • “Tectonics of the Haitian Earthquake”http://all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2010/01/tectonics-of-the-haitian-earthquake/ • BBC map: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/8466385.stm Contents

  36. USGS summary posters Action for students: Print out the USGS summary posters for Japan and Haiti for your folder. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthq akes/eqarchives/poster/2010/2010 112.Php USGS Earthquake map of Haiti: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2010/eq_100112_rja6/neic_rja6_l.html You will find multiple panels: epicentral area plate tectonic environment, earthquake history generalized seismic hazard USGS Summary Poster Contents

  37. Japan and Haiti:Key data activity (1) Action for students: • Based on the Japan exemplar slides and your research, draw a table comparing Japan and Haiti with key information including: • GDP per capita • Population • Median population age • Population under the age of 15 • High or low-income population • Population density • Urban population % • Maternal mortality rate (deaths / 100,000 live births) World ranking • Birth rate / 1,000 population • Death rate / 1,000 population • Availability of health care • Literacy, total population, % 2. Population pyramid: which age groups contain the largest number of people in Japan and Haiti? Does the population age structure diagram resemble a pyramid (A or B) or an inverted pyramid? Source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm Contents

  38. Japan and Haiti:Key data activity(2) • In what stage do Japan and Haiti’s birth rate, death rate and availability of health care place them on the demographic transition model? K Source: GCSE Bitesize population change and structure: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/population/population_change_structure_rev4.shtml Contents

  39. . Part ii: Four SECTIONS Contents

  40. Tectonic activity, seismicity and tectonics PART II - SECTION oneTectonic hazards and Causes Contents

  41. Section OneTectonic hazards and causes This section focuses briefly on the patterns and processes of earthquakes and volcanic hazards* and how they are managed. Contents

  42. Section OneTectonic hazards and causes What are tectonic hazards and their causes? Learning outcome This section will guide you in identifying, examining and understanding the: • Range of tectonic hazards and their causes; • Different profiles of tectonic hazards; • Link between tectonic hazards and plate tectonics; • Variation of tectonic hazards with the type of plate margin. Contents

  43. Event, hazard or disaster? Action for students: Discuss what makes an event a hazard or disaster based on information in the images only. Sources: 1 Water http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-new/ehow/images/a06/f9/r2/natural-hazards-disaster-management-800x800.jpg 2 Internal displacement: http://www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpGraphics)/B303AB7D46DFD5ECC12578D2005B9C8E/$file/nd-01-big.jpg 3 Haiti earthquake: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=haiti+earthquake&view=detail&id=CE5C433C1836E995E6DF12FF00689F877DA2DF3F&FORM=IDFRIR 4 Guatemala’s Volcano of Fire: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=volcanic+eruption+diasaster&view=detail&id=D62AC286BAA6030CE1A08A8E7D78AFC1DB0139E2&FORM=IDFRIR 5 Fault Rupture source: http://www.teara.govt.nz/files/p4411gns.jpg 1 2 3 4 5 Contents

  44. Event, hazard or disaster definitions • What is a natural event in an uninhabited place becomes a hazard in a populated one. • A hazardisnatural or human-made event that adversely affects human life, property or activity. A hazard involves people. • “Adisasteris an occurrence disrupting the normal conditions of existence and causing a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community.”(WHO/EHA 2002). There is no universally agreed numerical threshold for designating a hazard as a disaster. A matter of scale, a disaster is a lot bigger than a natural hazard. • Capacity: A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster. Source: UN/ISDR, Words Into Action: A Guide for Implementing the Hyogo Framework, Switzerland, 2007 Source: WHO/EHA 2002, Disasters & Emergency definitions; http://www.who.int/disasters/repo/7656.pdf Contents

  45. Perspectives on the Haiti earthquake experience Action for students: 1. View and interact with the video on the experience of the Haiti earthquake from the perspective of a survivor, an aid worker and a journalist: http://www.insidedisaster.com/experience/Main.html • Based on the video make a mind map about why the Haiti earthquake lead to disaster. See sample mind map for guidance. Source: http://www.mind-mapping.co.uk/make-mind-map.htm Contents

  46. What is a tectonic event? • A tectonic event is a physical occurrence resulting from the movement or deformation of the Earth’s crust. • Tectonic events are predominantly earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. • Tectonic events become tectonic hazards when they have the potential to cause loss of life and damage to property. • Not all tectonic events are hazardous. Contents

  47. Tectonic hazards Tectonic activity cause a very large range of hazard events. These are associated with the processes of earth movement and volcanism, and they are classified into primary and secondary hazards. Primary tectonic hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, pyroclastic flow, ash fall and volcanic gases. Secondary tectonic hazards include tsunamis, landslides and lahars. A tsunami is a secondary hazard, because the flooding is caused by the earthquake at sea. Tsunamis like the Asian Tsunami (2004) are rare. Contents

  48. What is an earthquake and tsunami? Action for students: • Watch BBC News, “Animated Guide – Earthquakes” and print out the PDF non-animated version. Retain in your research folder, as you will use it later: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7533950.stm 2. Watch National Geographic, “Earthquake 101”:http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/media/earthquakes-101/?ar_a=1&ar_r=999 Source:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/natural_hazards/earthquakes_rev1.shtml 3. Review BBC GCSE Bitesize, “What causes a Tsunami?”:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/natural_hazards/tsunamis_rev1.shtml And Japan Tsunami footage with explanations http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/news/environment-news/japan-tsunami-2011-vin/ • Source: Edexcel Unit 4, Option 1, • Tectonic activity and hazards Contents

  49. Defining earthquakes Earthquakes occur along fault lines and major plates lines. Themain shock in a cluster is the one with the largest magnitude. Foreshocks occur before the main shock. Not all main shocks have foreshocks. The main shock is always followed by aftershocks, which are smaller than the main shock and can continue for weeks, months or years. Each earthquake can provide new information: • If a subsequent event is larger than the one deemed a main shock, it can be redefined as a foreshock, for example, Tohoku, Japan (2011). • Similarly, an aftershock may sometimes be reclassified as a foreshock. Contents

  50. Foreshocks, Main shocks and aftershocks sequence • . Source: USGS Tohoku, Japan (2011) Map: 11 March - magnitude 9.0 main shock off Tohoku followed by 166 aftershocks of magnitude 5.5 and greater until May 20. Aftershocks follow a statistically predictable manner. In common with almost all of the largest earthquakes, this one is on a subduction zone. Warmer colour for more recent events Larger symbol for greater quake magnitude. Action for students: Record in your glossary what is meant by a subduction zone .Explain why it causes 5000 earthquakes a year in Japan (one or more a day). K Contents