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Can Survey Respondents with Visual Deficits Complete My Web Survey? PowerPoint Presentation
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Can Survey Respondents with Visual Deficits Complete My Web Survey?

Can Survey Respondents with Visual Deficits Complete My Web Survey?

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Can Survey Respondents with Visual Deficits Complete My Web Survey?

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  1. Can Survey Respondents with Visual Deficits Complete My Web Survey? DC-AAPOR Web Survey Workshop September 10, 2009 Lawrence A. Malakhoff U.S. Census Bureau

  2. Overview • Defining Accessibility • Testing Methodology • Usage of Color • Visual Focus • Reading Order • Techniques to Reduce Memory Burden • Navigation Instructions • Types of Web Surveys

  3. An Unfamiliar Requirement • A RFP from a Federal Agency for a Web Survey requires the software to conform to Section 508. • 13.8 million hits on “Section 508” from Google with references to standards and checklists. • The Web survey designer must understand this requirement before design begins.

  4. Defining Accessibility • “Section 508 requires that when Federal agencies develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology, Federal employees with disabilities have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use by Federal employees who are not individuals with disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency.” (1194.1) • Applies to Federal Internet & Intranet Web sites, forms, Web surveys, and desktop applications since 6/2001.

  5. What is an Accessible Web Survey? • Usable • Conforms to Section 508 • Enables the screen-reader user to experience the same visual sequence of questions, answer choices, skip patterns and instructions • Single accessible version, versus separate versions • The design process includes accessibility

  6. Automated Tools • Automated tools available – Cynthia Says (free), AccVerify, and InFocus • Tools do not interpret results within context of the page. • Content can be accessible, but not usable if it is unstructured.

  7. Testing Methodology • Focused on persons with visual impairments. • Used the InFocus automated testing tool • Used the Job Access With Speech (JAWS) screen reader to verify accessibility findings. • Tested related elements, HELP, FAQs, etc., with JAWS & Adobe Acrobat.

  8. Usage of Color • “Color coding shall not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.” (1194.21(i)) • Users with a color deficit see in shades of gray. • Click on the green button or the Go button? GO

  9. Visual Focus • “A well-defined on-screen indication of the current focus shall be provided that moves among interactive interface elements as the input focus changes. The focus shall be programmatically exposed so that assistive technology can track focus and focus changes.” (1194.21(c)) • Visual Focus is shown as a dotted rectangle around the current button or link and changes when the user presses the tab key.

  10. Visual Focus is shown when tabbing

  11. Reading Order 1 Reading starts Here. 2 Response options. Navigation buttons. 3

  12. Placement of Instructions and Memory Burden • Lengthy instructions can interfere with recall of the original question. • Better to list topic, instructions, question, then response data entry field or options, in that order. • Question? • Instruction 1. • Instruction 2. • Instruction 3. • Topic • Instruction 1. • Instruction 2. • Instruction 3. Preferred response: Question?

  13. Inferences and Memory Burden • Please check all that apply to your residence: • Condition 1. • Condition 2. • Condition 3. Please tell us the number of rooms. • If condition 1, … • If condition 2, … • If condition 3, … • number: If condition 2 is checked, conditions 1 and 3 do not need to be present in later questions.

  14. Inferences and Memory Burden(2) • Use of “his”, “hers”, “he”, “she” is more engaging to the respondent than “this person.” • Personal pronouns are preferable to a first name because they are less likely to be mispronounced by the screen reader. How many children did this person have? How many children did she have? number: Preferred

  15. Stem and Leaf Questionnaire Structure • Stem contains the first part of the question • Two or more conditions (leaves) follow • The second and later leaves pose a memory burden for screen-reader users • Backward navigation may be necessary if stem text cannot be recalled • Technically accessible but poor usability

  16. Stem These questions deal with your usage of some accessibility features of MS-Windows just during the last month. How much of the time last month did you use: Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never Mouse Keys Sticky Keys Filter Keys Leaf 1 Leaf 2 Leaf 3

  17. Navigation Instructions Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Click the button on the left. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Click the button on the right. For more information, click the link below. • Design for linear and random access differences • Instructions to choose a link to the left/right problematic • Screen-reader users must guess at navigation strategy • “Click the link below” implies forward navigation left right

  18. Types of Web Surveys • Screen-based • Scrolling/paging • Screen-based form offers a key advantage over a scrolling Web Survey – reduction of memory burden.

  19. Recommendations for Accessible Web Surveys • Make it usable • Make it accessible • Ensure correct reading order • Create a single accessible version • Use questionnaire structures that reduce user memory burden • Use a screen-based Web survey

  20. References • Cynthia Says: • AccVerify: • InFocus: • Moss, Trenton (2007). The Problem With Automated Accessibility Testing Tools, retrieved from web-accessibility/automated-tools.shtml on 4/10/2009 • Window-Eyes: • JAWS:

  21. References(2) • Peterson, L.R., & Peterson, M.J. (1959). Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 193-198. • Usability Basics: • Accessible forms: • WebAIM: • Section 508:

  22. Contact • • 301-763-3688 • Survey Practice: • Questions?