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Agenda

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Agenda

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  1. Agenda • Bell ringer • Review the Crusades • The Sui

  2. Review • What were the causes of the Crusades? • What were the impacts of the Crusades on western Europe?

  3. Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.)

  4. Essential learning: inner and east asia (600-1200)

  5. Objectives • Describe the development of China after the fall of the Han dynasty. • Identify accomplishments of the Sui dynasty. • Identify accomplishments of the Tang dynasty. • Describe the fall of the Tang dynasty.

  6. Essential Questions • How did China develop after the fall of the Han dynasty? • What are some accomplishments of the Sui dynasty? • What are some accomplishments of the Tang dynasty? • How did political problems and rebellions lead to the fall of the Tang dynasty?

  7. Target: Sui and Tang Empires (581-755) • Several centuries of fragmentation after fall of Han. • Reunified under Sui dynasty (581-615). • New capital Chang’an. • Heartland in northern China, settlements along Yangzi. • Grand Canal, irrigation systems, improved Great Wall. • Bureaucracy and resources for public works and military ambition = burdens.

  8. Map 11-1, p. 286

  9. Tang (Li) Dynasty (618) • Li Shimin (r. 626-649) extended power westward into Inner Asia. • Used many Sui governing practices, but avoided overcentralization. • Descended from Turkic elites that built small states in northern China after the Han. • Appreciated pastoral, nomadic culture and Chinese traditions.

  10. Buddhism • Used in politics. • Kings and emperors – turn humankind into a harmonious Buddhist society. • Mahayana (“Great Vehicle”) Buddhism predominated. • Encouraged translating Buddhist scripture into local languages. • Adaptability invigorated travel, language learning, cultural exchange. • Monastic leaders prayed for early Tang princes in exchange for tax exemptions, land privileges, and gifts.

  11. As the Tang Empire expanded west, contacts with Central Asia and India increased, as did Buddhist influence • Chang’anbecame center of continent wide system of communication • Regional cultures and identities remained strong. • Cosmopolitan empire

  12. Well-maintained roads and water transport connected Chang’an to coastal towns of south China. • Grand Canal was key component. • Center of the tributary system – independent countries acknowledged supremacy of the Chinese emperor.

  13. Upheavals and Repression (750-879) • Conflict with Tibetans and Turkic Uighurs. • Result – backlash against foreigners, which to Confucians included Buddhists. • Undermined idea of family as model for state, encouraged women in politics. • Cut ties with the world • Ex. tax exempt. • Fall of the Tang (879-907) • An Lushan and other rebellions

  14. p. 291

  15. Essential Questions • How did China develop after the fall of the Han dynasty? • What are some accomplishments of the Sui dynasty? • What are some accomplishments of the Tang dynasty? • How did political problems and rebellions lead to the fall of the Tang dynasty?

  16. Agenda

  17. Review • How did China develop after the fall of the Han dynasty? • What are some accomplishments of the Sui dynasty? • What are some accomplishments of the Tang dynasty? • How did political problems and rebellions lead to the fall of the Tang dynasty?

  18. Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.)

  19. Essential learning: the emergence of east asia (600-1200)

  20. Objectives • Describe how the Liao and Jin Empires challenged Song China. • Identify accomplishments of the Song Empire. • Evaluate the role of women in the Song Empire.

  21. Essential Questions • How did the Liao and Jin Empires challenge Song China? • What were some accomplishments of the Song Empire? • What was the role of women in the Song Empire?

  22. Target: The Emergence of East Asia (to 1200) • Three new states after the fall of the Tang. • Liao Empire of the Khitan people – pastoral nomads related to Mongols. • Mayahana Buddhism • Minyakpeople – cousins of the Tibetans established Tanggut. • Tibetan Buddhism • Song Empire (960) in central China. • Confucianism • Advanced seafaring and sailing technologies.

  23. Map 11-2, p. 292

  24. The Liao and Jin Challenge (916-1125) • Liao Empire of the Khitan people • Horse and cattle breeders, related to Mongols. • Military strength. • Encouraged people to keep their culture. • Song emperor paid cash and silk annually. • Jin • Allied with Song, destroyed Liao Empire. • Grew rice, millet, and wheat. Hunted, fished, tended livestock. • Khitanmilitary strategies and political organization. • Campaigned against the Song in 1127.

  25. Map 11-3, p. 293

  26. Southern Song (1127-1279) • Payments to Jin stopped more warfare. • South of the Yellow River, capital at Hangzhou. • Closer to industrial revolution than any other premodern state. • Advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, mathematics from Tang times. • Adapted to meet military, agricultural, and administrative needs. • Fractions describe phases of the moon.

  27. p. 294

  28. Precise calendar. • Refined the compass, now suitable for seafaring (1090). • Junk – large flatbottom sailing ship. • Fought for control of mines in north China – needed iron and steel for weapons. • Gunpowder to counter cavalry assaults.

  29. Economy and Society in Song China • Civil pursuits were important • Private academies for official examinations • Neo-Confucianism – basis for Song rule • Moral and social responsibility. • Sage was important. • Popular Buddhist sects persisted. • Civil service examinations continued. Recruited talent, but wealthy had advantage.

  30. Early form of moveable type made printing cheaper. • Exam prep books before 1000 = more members of lower class in bureaucracy • Landlords learned expert planting and irrigation techniques. • Population above 100 million during the 1100s. • Health and overcrowding.

  31. Credit – “flying money”based on acceptance that paper could be redeemed for coinage. • Government-issued paper money caused inflation • Tax farming as revenue for maintenance of infrastructure. • Selling rights to tax collection to individuals. • Heavy burden on the common people. • Rapid economic growth undermined government regulation. • Merchants, artisans, gentry, and officials could make fortunes. • Traditional social hierarchy weakened.

  32. Women experienced subordination, legal disenfranchisement, and social restriction. • Wives of merchants managed homes and businesses. • Property passed to husband. Could not remarry. • Subordination compatible with Confucianism. • Literate lower-class women aspired to improve status. • Footbinding (Tang then Song) as status symbol. • Working women and those indigenous of the south did not practice – more mobility and economic independence.

  33. p. 296

  34. Essential Questions • How did the Liao and Jin Empires challenge Song China? • What were some accomplishments of the Song Empire? • What was the role of women in the Song Empire?

  35. Agenda • Bell ringer • Primary source analysis • Review emergence of East Asia • New kingdoms in East Asia and Southeast Asia • Closure

  36. Review • How did the Liao and Jin Empires challenge Song China? • What were some accomplishments of the Song Empire? • What was the role of women in the Song Empire?

  37. Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.)

  38. Essential learning: new kingdoms in east asia and southeast asia

  39. Objectives • Describe how Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapted Chinese cultural and political models. • Identify the principal sources of wealth in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. • Describe foreign influence on Srivijaya.

  40. Essential Questions • How did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapt Chinese cultural and political models? • What were the principal sources of wealth in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam? • Where did foreign influence on Srivijaya come from and what were those influences?

  41. Map 11-3, p. 293

  42. Target: New Kingdoms in Asia and Southeast Asia • Chinese influences • Korea, Japan, and Vietnam had first centralized power under ruling houses in the early Tang. • State ideologies resembled early Tang. • Government offices did not depend on exams, went to nobles. • Landowners faced no challenges from merchant class or urban elite. • Learned men prized literacy in classical Chinese and knowledge of Confucian texts. • Ruling and landholding elites south to instill Confucian ideals of hierarchy and harmony among the general population.

  43. Where is Korea?

  44. Korea • QinEmpire established its first colony in the Korean peninsula in the third century BCE. • Chinese bureaucrats began documenting Korean history and customs. • Horse breeding, strong hereditary elites, shamanism(belief in ability of certain people to contact ancestors and invisible spirit world). • Quickly absorbed Confucianism and Buddhism.

  45. Geography • Mountainsin the east and north. • Heavily foresteduntil modern times. • Less than 20% of the land can be cultivated and lies mostly to the south (warm climate, monsoonrains). • Spread of languagespromoted by population movements to Manchuria, Mongolia, Siberia, and Japan.

  46. Sixth century – landholding families made inherited status permanent in Silla. • Silla controlled much of the Korean peninsula. • Koryoruling house in power from 900s-1200s. • Supported Buddhism. • Oldest surviving woodblock printin Chinese characters comes from Korea in the middle 700s. • Experimented with movable type.

  47. Where is Japan?