The somatic and special Senses Danielle White and Joanna Mohr
Truth or Baloney? The two types of senses are the somatic and the serial senses. Special senses are found all over the body. special Baloney! Somatic Baloney!
Where are the senses located? Somatic Senses Special Senses • Where are the senses located? Skin 2. Eyes 3. Ears 4. Viscera Word Bank: 5. Tastebuds 6. Joints 7. Muscles 8. Nose
Somatic Senses Special Senses • What are the senses sensitive to? • What are the senses sensitive to? Here as well A. Light B. Odor C. Touch D. Sound Word Bank: E. Pain F. Temperature G. Taste H. Pressure
Match the five types of sense receptors with the condition they are sensitive to. (R)
Truth or Baloney? Nervous Baloney! A sensory receptor is a structure of the endocrine system that gathers information regarding the environment. The five types of sensory receptors are: chemoreceptors, pain receptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and photoreceptors. True!
Chemoreceptor • Pain receptor • Thermoreceptor • Mechanoreceptor • Photoreceptor • Light • Tissue damage • Changes in Pressure • Changes in chemical concentration • Changes in temperature
Which sense receptor is stimulated? • My photoreceptors were stimulated when I walked out of a dark room into the light • When I pricked my finger, my pain receptors were stimulated • I can taste the difference between sweet and sour using my chemoreceptors • When my brother sat on me, my mechanoreceptors were stimulated • I could feel the heat radiated off the stove with my thermoreceptors. Chemoreceptors, Pain Receptors, Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Photoreceptors Word bank
Identify the types of nerve endings and explain their function in various situations. (R)
Nerve Endings:Match each nerve ending with picture 2. 1. Pacinian Corpuscle Meissners Corpuscles 3. Free Nerve Ending Word Bank: Pacinian Corpuscles, Free Nerve Ending, Meissners Corpuscles
Why are free nerve endings only sensitive to temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit? • When we feel temperatures outside of this range, our pain receptors are triggered instead of our thermoreceptors • This is the optimal range for survival • Free nerve endings can only work if the skin temperature is between 50 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit
Describe situations in which a nerve ending would be used • Which nerve ending can respond to heavy pressure? • A. Meissners Corpuscles • B. Pacinian Corpuscles • C. Free Nerve Endings
Which nerve ending can respond to stimuli that barely grazes the skin? • A. Pacinian Corpuscles • B. Free Nerve Endings • C. Meissners Corpuscles
Which nerve ending can respond to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain? • A. Free Nerve Endings • B. Pacinian Corpuscles • C. Meissners Corpuscles • D. All of the Above
Interpret diagrams of neural pathways used in somatic senses and know the function of each structure. (K)
Identify structures in a nerve pathway 3. 2. Interneuron 1. Word Bank Sensory Neuron, Interneuron, Motor Neuron
Match Sensation and Projection with its correct definition Sensation Projection The process of the receptors interpreting the stimulus The moment the brain becomes aware of a stimulus
Sensory Receptors associated with somatic sense The Sensory Receptor(s) found in the somatic sense is • A. Mechanoreceptor • B. Thermoreceptor • C. Pain Receptor • D. All of the Above
Perform various tests on the skin to determine the distribution of receptors. Use the results to hypothesize reasons for the distribution. (S)
1. What can be determined from the touch localization test and the two point discrimination test if the circled values are the best averages? Humans have more touch receptors in their palms and fingertips Humans have more touch receptors in the backs of their necks and hands Humans don’t use touch receptors
2. Why might a doctor perform a touch localization test or a two point discrimination test? The doctor likes poking his subjects with markers and nails B. The doctor may be testing for nerve damage if the patient just had a stroke C. The doctor can test the patient’s reflexes with this test
Truth or Baloney? The body feels pain in order to prevent tissue damage. Why do certain areas of our body need to be more sensitive than others? Truth! • These sensitive areas are most exposed to our external environment • All areas of the body have equal sensitivity • These sensitive areas are used as our primary touch organs (e.g. fingertips, palms of the hand, etc.) Dopamine Epinephrine plays a role in pain inhibition. Baloney!
Define a sensory adaptation The evolution of senses over many generations The ability of the sensory system to ignore old information in order to receive and process new information The ability to improve one’s senses over time with training A circus trick that involves smelling different items and guessing correctly what they are Is this an example of sensory adaptation? Yes/No When I first walked into the zoo, it smelled awful, but after a few minutes I couldn’t tell how badly it smelled any more.
List the structures and physiological events associated with the special senses. (K)
Match the organ associated with the sense • Nose • Taste Buds • Ears (Inner Ears) • Eyes • Skin • Taste • Touch • Smell • Hear • Sight
Receptor associated with the special sense of taste The sense of smell uses: • Chemoreceptors only • Pain Receptor and Chemoreceptors • Thermoreceptors, Pain Receptors, and Chemoreceptors • Thermoreceptors, Pain Receptors, Chemoreceptors, and Mechanoreceptors
Proper steps of a taste nerve impulse 1. Chemical dissolves in saliva 2. Taste hairs of taste cells receive stimuli 3. A nerve impulse travels on the fibers of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves 4. Taste is then interpreted in the parietal lobe Word Bank : Saliva, Parietal Lobe, Facial, Glossopharyngeal, stimuli
Receptor associated with the special sense of smell • The sense of smell uses • A. Chemoreceptors • B. Pain Receptors • C. Thermoreceptors • D. Mechanoreceptors
Proper steps of a smell nerve impulse • Odorants dissolve in mucus found in the nasal cavity 2. Cilia on olfactory cells detect odorant molecules 3. A nerve impulse travels through the cells into olfactory nerve fiber 4. The nerve fibers transmit the impulse to the olfactory bulb 5. Smell is then interpreted in the temporal and frontal lobes Word Bank: Nasal, Olfactory, Cilia, Impulse, Temporal
Receptor associated with the special sense of hearing • The sense of hearing for the outer ear uses • A. Thermoreceptors • B. Pain receptors • C. Mechanoreceptors • D. Chemoreceptors
Proper steps of a hearing nerve impulse in the outer ear 1. Outer ear funnels sounds waves to the tymphanic membrane (eardrum) 2. Pressure on eardrum causes it to vibrate 3. The ossicles receive and amplify the vibration 4. Vibrations cause tiny ripples in the fluid of inner ear 5. The cilia in the cochlea bend, sending an action potential through the vestibucochlear nerve 6. Impulses are then interpreted in the temporal lobe Word Bank: Vestibucochlear, Temporal, Inner, Ossicles, Tymphanic, Vibrate
Receptor(s) associated with the special sense of hearing • The sense of hearing in the inner ear uses • A. Pain Receptor • B. Mechanoreceptor • C. Photoreceptor • D. Both A and B
Put steps in order proper steps for a hearing nerve impulse in the inner ear to happen Static equilibrium (position in space): 1. Hair cells in vestibule are stimulated by movement Dynamic equilibrium (motion and balance): 1. Movement causes hair cells in semicircular canals to bend 2. Impulses are then interpreted in the temporal lobe Word Bank: Static, Semicircular, Temporal, Dynamic, Vestibule
Receptor(s) associated with the special sense of sight • The sense of sight uses • A. Mechanoreceptors • B. Photoreceptors • C. Thermoreceptors • D. All of the above
Put in order proper steps for a vision nerve impulse to happen 1. Light passes through the pupil the amount is controlled by the iris 2. The lens focuses light on the retina stimulating the receptors called rods and cones 3. Nerve impulses and generated and sent along the optic nerve 4. Sight is then interpreted in the occipital lobe Word Bank: Pupil, Optic Nerve, Retina, Occipital, Lens
Why is the nose located over the mouth? Why do we taste? • The nose allows you to smell the food before you eat it so you can know if it’s bad for you or not • The nose is best friends with the mouth, and never wants to be far away from it • The nose is our primary organ for the sense of touch • Taste buds produce oxygen from our food, which allows us to breathe • Tasting our food prevents us from eating poison or other hazardous substances • If we didn’t taste our food, we wouldn’t be able to smell anything
Complete the phrases Taste threshold is the minimum/maximum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived. As we age, we lose taste buds; therefore, our taste threshold will be lower/higher.
Truth or Baloney? The evolutionary advantage of sight and hearing is that with these two senses, we can process more information about our environment and potentially protect ourselves from predators. True!
Which scenario describes the relationship between taste and smell? When Troy was very sick and his nose was stuffed up, he couldn’t taste his chicken noodle soup When Jenna walked through the perfume section at Macy’s, she noticed that at first, the smell was overwhelming, but after a few seconds, she became used to it When Tina ate her birthday dinner, the chemoreceptors in her tongue sent messages to her brain, which made her able to smell her meal Mrs. Cerletty’s nasal cavities are moist in order to dissolve odorant molecules
Choose the correct response In the Skittles Lab, we could determine the color and flavor of the Skittles easily/with great difficulty with our noses plugged.
Label a diagram of the ear and know the function of each structure. (K)
4 Ossicles 5 Vestibulocochlear Nerve 6 Vestibule 7 3 8 Tympanic Membrane 1 External Auditory Meatus 9 (Auricle) 2 Word Bank 10 Labyrinth Pinna (Auricle), External Auditory Meatus, Tympanic Membrane, Eustachian Tube, Ossicles, Semicircular Canal, Vestibule, Cochlea, Labyrinth, Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Determine the Functions of the Structures of the Ear • Pinna (Auricle) • External Auditory Meatus • Tympanic Membrane • Ossicles • Eustachian Tube • Vestibulocochlear • Labyrinth • Sends impulses to temporal lobe of the brain • Equalizes pressure on either side of the eardrum • Where ear wax is produced • Funnels sound • Amplifies vibrations • Contains receptors for hearing and balance • Passes vibrations to the Ossicles
Hearing tests are used to determine if there is something wrong with the inner ear/inner nose
Truth or Baloney • Auditory acuity tests are used to determine how well a person can hear depending on the location of a sound • BALONEY Auditory acuity tests are used to measure the distance away a person can hear a sound