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9. Guidelines for Sustainable and Responsible Tourism PowerPoint Presentation
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9. Guidelines for Sustainable and Responsible Tourism

9. Guidelines for Sustainable and Responsible Tourism

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9. Guidelines for Sustainable and Responsible Tourism

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  1. 9. Guidelines for Sustainable and Responsible Tourism World Tourism Organization Manila, 20 – 22 March 2006

  2. ECONOMIC IMPACTS THE DEFINITION OF ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM Invisible export which creates a flow of foreign currency in the economy Tourism Contributes directly to the balance of payments Creates: - business turnover - household income - employment - government revenue Economic costs

  3. Indirect Induced MEASURING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM THE TOURISM INCOME MULTIPLIER Tourist Expenditure Direct Imports (leakages) Travel Hotels Transports HandicraftsServices agency & rest. Wages Profits Taxes Equipment Stocks & supplies

  4. ECONOMIC IMPACTS Rupies Pounds Taxi Bus Car Train Marks $$$ Shops Theatres Tour services Restaurants Etc. Etc. Etc. Hotels Fittings Linen Etc. Etc. Etc. Furniture Carpets Pool equip Vegies Meat Employees Etc. Etc. Etc. Supermarket Car Housing Casino Clothing Taxi Bank Jobs JObs Jobs Jobs Jobs

  5. MEASURING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS Input-output studies analyse inter-industry relationships by tracking the flow of goods and services in an area’s economy through the chain of producers, suppliers, and intermediaries to the final buyer Construction of a table showing the economy of the destination in matrix form where all the purchasers and sellers of goods and services are represented Demonstrates how economic sectors are related, the number of linkages among them and the effect of these linkages

  6. MEASURING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM INPUT-OUTPUT TABLE Total Output DEMAND BY INDUSTRY Purchase from Industry 1 Industry 2 Industry 3 Industry 1 2 3 H I G E (H = household consumption) (I = Investment expenditure) (G = Government expenditure) (E = Exports) Wages Profits Taxes Imports Sales to Total Input

  7. Clear Definition of Tourism Activity Direct Activities Indirect Activities • Account for: • Demand • Supply • Employment • Taxes Identification of benefits: income, employment, taxes flows through sectors Comprehensive picture of the size and scale of tourism in the country MEASURING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM TOURISM SATTELITE ACCCOUNTS

  8. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM MANAGING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM Positive Negative Impacts Inflation Repatriation of profits by foreign firms and workers Diversion of scarce resources Profitability of other firms affected Scarce resources for tourists, not locals Increase in land and retail prices Unemployment in non-tourist areas Loan repayments Invisible export Flow of foreign currency Development of infrastructure Redistribution of domestic currency spatially within boundaries of a country Improvement less developed areas Employment creation Foreign investment Multiplier effect

  9. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM DEFINITION: SOCIAL IMPACTS CHANGES TO EVERYDAY LIFE SOCIAL IMPACTS refer to changes in the lives of people who live at destination communities, and are associated more with direct contact between residents and tourists.

  10. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM DEFINITION: CULTURAL IMPACTS CHANGES TO CULTURE CULTURAL IMPACTS refer to changes in the arts, artefacts, customs, rituals and architecture of a people, and are longer term changes which result more from tourism development. Collective memory may be affected resulting in a loss of identity.

  11. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM LOCAL’S ATTITUDES TOWARDS TOURISM Active Response Active Aggressive promotion of something favoured Silent acceptance of something favoured Positive Attitude Behaviour Aggressive opposition to something disliked Resigned acceptance of something disliked Negative

  12. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM MANAGING SOCIAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Positive Negative Impacts Crime, drugs Prostitution Corruption, bribery Relocation for construction Displacement of rural and fishing communities Breakdown of family unit Jobs taken by foreigners Demonstration effect Resentment by locals Jealousy Employment Jobs for women Jobs for the young Higher standard of living Quality of life Social contact with foreignerLanguages Leaning new skills - trainingEducation Social tourism

  13. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM MANAGING CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Positive Negative Impacts Revival and protection of ancient traditions Preservation of ancient buildings Stage-managed events protect reluctant cultures Revival and preservation of the handicraft industry Pride in heritage Degradation and commercialisation of cultural and ethnic heritage Cultural traditions may become devalued in an attempt to adapt to tourist tastes Observing, watching and photographing locals doing their daily business Racism

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Positive Negative Impacts Regeneration Environmental awareness Preservation of buildings,attractions, historic sites, natural habitats Development of leisure facilities used by locals Tourists want high quality environment Cleaning up of pollution Protected areas Excess demand /over-utilisation Concentration of tourist is areas and in time- crowding Loss of natural landscape Badly conceived construction damage areas Tourism development can destroy natural resources Damage to fragile habitats… Atmospheric, water and visual pollution Littering

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM DETERMINING CARRYING CAPACITY Alien factors Local factors Planning process Management of development Technology Impacts Social/Cultural Environmental Economic Parameters Standards Carrying Capacity

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM LIMITS TO ACCEPTABLE CHANGE Applied research Surveys Local residents’ perspectives Scientific knowledge Design of environmental conditions that are desirable must consider Tourism activity or development

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM COST BENEFIT Cost Benefit Analysis Analysis of Social and Environmental Costs Analysis of Social and Environmental Benefits Expressed Quantitatively


  19. PLANNING TOURISM DESTINATIONS Decline or rejuvenation Introduction Growth Maturity Saturation No of visitors Stagnation Rejuvenation Consolidation Development Involvement Decline Exploration Time

  20. Planning is essential to tourism development to: • Optimise the return-on-resources without jeopardising the future of the resources • Provide equitable costs and benefits for actors • Maximise tourist/consumer satisfaction • Improve the prosperity of indigenous people • Contribute to the competitive strategy of the destination PLANNING TOURISM DESTINATIONS IS A PLAN NECESSARY?

  21. PLANNING TOURISM DESTINATIONS FORMS OF TOURISM PLANNING Planning is organising the future to achieve certain objectives. There are several forms of tourism planning: Economic development planning Land use planning Infrastructure planning Social services planning Safety planning

  22. International Tourism Planning General guidelines; voluntary standards General objectives for the country as a whole National Tourism Planning Specific for region following overall aims of the national plan Regional Tourism Planning Local Tourism Planning Detailed and specific for area PLANNING TOURISM DESTINATIONS LEVELS OF TOURISM PLANNING

  23. Interactive Planning Conventional Planning Plan is what we agree to do Plan is what we should do TQM Goals: focus on support, continuous consultation and stakeholder involvement throughout the plan Expert sets goals: focus on information and manipulation on data Planner as a value-neutral expert Planner is a value -committed advocate Success: achievement of agreement on action and resulting change Success: achievement of plan’s objectives PLANNING TOURISM DESTINATIONS INTERACTIVE VS CONVENTIONAL PLANNING

  24. A successful tourist destination requires infrastructure: Natural, man-made, artificial, purpose built, heritage ATTRACTIONS Transport system: route, terminals, vehicles ACCESSIBILITY Accommodation and catering facilities, retail, other tourist services AMENITIES Banks, telecommunications, post… ANCILLARY SERVICES PLANNING TOURISM DESTINATIONS PROVIDING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR TOURISM

  25. Time for a break!

  26. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Commission Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support system. WTO, WTTC, Earth Council (Agenda 21 for tourism industry - 1995)

  27. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Ecological Sustainability Ensures that development is compatible with the maintenance of essential processes, biological diversity and biological resources. Social and Cultural Sustainability Ensures that development increases people’s control over their lives, is compatible with the culture and values of people affected by it, and maintains and strengthens community identity SD Economic Sustainability Ensures that development is economically efficient and equitable and that resources are managed so that they can support future generations

  28. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PARTNERSHIPS IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Public authority Public authority tourism industry environment supporters tourism industry environment supporters community community Old Style Tourism Sustainable Tourism

  29. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBLE TOURISM AS A KEY TO SUSTAINABILITY Proactive approach by tourism industry partners to develop, market and manage the tourism industry in a responsible manner so as to create a sustainable competitive advantage Responsibility Towards Environment Local Communities Local Cultures Employees/ Employers Visitors

  30. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT • Avoid waste and over-consumption by using local resources sustainably • Be sensitive to the host culture • Involve local community in planning/ decision-making • Encourage benefits/links for local entrepreneurs • Encourage natural, economic, social, cultural diversity • Assess environmental, social and economic impacts as a pre-requisite to developing tourism • Market tourism that is responsible, respecting local cultural and natural environments • Monitor impacts of tourism transparently

  31. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT WHY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT? Increasing market demand Ethos towards Future Generations Increasing International Trend Business Case

  32. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT STATE OF SUPPORT FOR RESPONSIBLE TOURISM • Consumer demand strong and growing, although still largely passive • Strong tour operator’s support – especially among specialist operators – branding and price advantages • Ethical consumption and investments growing rapidly • Eco-labels: general support but also confusion – too many

  33. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES Responsible Tourism Guidelines Environmental Social and Cultural Economic

  34. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ECONOMIC GUIDELINES ECONOMIC GUIDELINES • Assess economic impacts before developing tourism • Maximise local economic benefits by increasing linkages and reducing leakages • Ensure communities are involved in an benefit from tourism • Assist with marketing and product development • Promote equitable business practices

  35. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ECONOMIC GUIDELINES ASSESSING ECONOMIC IMPACTS HOW WILL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AFFECT THE LOCAL ECONOMY? Adverse effects – inflation, loss resources? Unrealistic Expec-tations? Possible FDI & SMME links? Benefits & Opportunity cost? Seasonality effects?

  36. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ECONOMIC GUIDELINES MAXIMISE LINKAGES THROUGH LOCAL PROCUREMENT Analyse the corporate supply chain & fit to objectives Identify opportunities for local supply and procurement e.g. laundry, firewood, fresh produce, arts & craft, flowers, transport, entertainment, etc. etc. Manage policy and process i.d. relevant products & suppliers, evaluate, contract, mentor, train, assist, etc. Monitor and Evaluate Measure success, lessons, adapt strategy & processes, communicate & apply, etc.

  37. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ECONOMIC GUIDELINES +’s AND –’s OF LOCAL PROCUREMENT BENEFITS Cost-saving Product differentiation Brand recognition Social reputation and morale Government acknowledgement CONSTRAINTS Lack of quality and product acceptability Price Contractual requirements Staff/management inertia and resistance

  38. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM SOCIAL GUIDELINES SOCIAL GUIDELINES • Involve the local community in planning and decision-making • Assess social impacts of tourism activities • Maintain and encourage social and cultural diversity • Be sensitive to the host culture

  39. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM SOCIAL GUIDELINES INVOLVE LOCAL COMMUNITY IN PLANNING/DECISIONS Destination Understand political & cultural context Eliminate barriers to entry Private Businesses Local Community Local Community part of decision structures Mentoring Programmes Market/communicate local culture, traditions

  40. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM SOCIAL GUIDELINES ENCOURAGE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY • Develop tourism with dignity, respect & nurturing of local cultures • Use tourism as a catalyst for human development • Be sensitive not to compromise respect for local cultural and religious rights • Support school visits to cultural/heritage sites • Consider community scholarships • Showcase and promote local artifacts & crafts in your enterprise • Encourage cultural workers to maintain authenticity • Serve local dishes, source furnishings, arts & crafts locally • Work with community in identifying, scoping and developing heritage resources

  41. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM SOCIAL GUIDELINES BE SENSITIVE TO THE HOST CULTURE Combat negative impacts & abuse Educate Visitors re Local Culture Guard against over-commercial Opportunities for spontaneous interaction Operating Principles Develop & Display Social Contract Value indigenous intellectual property Guard against over-commercial Use and capacitate local guides

  42. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES • Assess Environmental Impacts • Use local resources sustainably, avoid waste & over-consumption • Maintain and encourage natural diversity

  43. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS • Select areas for development with care and integrate environmental management in project cycle • Follow best-practice guidelines for design, planning and construction • Use local materials and designs – avoid negative aesthetic impacts • Avoid noise and light pollution • Use natural ventilation • Plan for lowest possible ecological impact – forests, wildlife, wetlands, etc. • Encourage biodiversity – plant indigenous habitats for birds, bees, butterflies

  44. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES USE LOCAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLY • Meter water consumption and set targets to reduce • Measure energy consumption and introduce energy saving measures ( low-energy appliances, natural ventilation, dim lights, etc.) • Increase usage of renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, etc.) • Monitor use of diesel, paraffin & petrol and set targets to reduce consumption • Monitors sewage disposal and management • Recycle waste and reduce waste output • Encourage use of environmentally friendly transport • Invest in sustainable trails, hides and interpretation • Tell visitors what you are doing!

  45. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES MAINTAIN AND ENCOURAGE NATURAL DIVERSITY Encourage visitor behaviour that respects natural heritage and has a low impact on it Educate staff & visitors about conservation Avoid pollution by using environmentally friendly chemicals, soaps, detergents Natural Diversity Invest some profits in conservation Do not market activities that can harm ecologically sensitive areas e.g. 4x4, hunting, diving, etc. Look for ways in which enterprise & guests can assist with conservation Discourage purchase of products that contribute to destruction of species/ habitats

  46. Thank You!