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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:Physical Features Section 2:Climate Regions Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. RegionsThe United States and Canada cover most of the land area of North America, stretching from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. These two huge countries share many of the same physical features, resources, and climates.How do landforms and climate help or hinder transportation in a vast region? Chapter Intro 1

  4. Section 1: Physical Features Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics.The United States and Canada share a long border and many landforms. Their economies are closely linked by trade. Their governments have also worked together on major projects that have changed the land and benefited both countries. Chapter Intro 2

  5. Section 2: Climate Regions The physical environment affects how people live.A diversity of climates in the United States and Canada leads to different ways of life. Some parts of this region experience natural hazards that can threaten people’s safety. Chapter Intro 2

  6. Chapter Intro-End

  7. Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics. Section 1-Main Idea

  8. Content Vocabulary • contiguous • megalopolis • prairie • cordillera • canyon • navigable • glacier • divide Academic Vocabulary • constrain • route Section 1-Key Terms

  9. Standing at the Grand Canyon’s edge, you can see for miles. Its sheer size—277 miles (445 km) long, with walls rising up to 6,000 feet (1,829 m)—is almost mind-boggling. The Grand Canyon was formed by the Colorado River over a period of 6 million years. To learn more about the physical features of the United States and Canada, read Section 1. Section 1-Picture This

  10. A B Have you ever been to Canada? A. Yes B. No Section 1-Polling Question

  11. In California’s Redwood National Park, during 2006, naturalists discovered what is now recognized as the world’s tallest tree. Named Hyperion, it is 379.1 feet (115.5 m) tall—as much as one-and-a-quarter football fields long! Section 1

  12. Major Landforms The region rises in elevation from east to west. Section 1

  13. Major Landforms (cont.) • The United States and Canada, covering most of North America, are bordered by the Arctic Ocean in the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Gulf of Mexico in the southeast, and the Pacific Ocean in the west. • Canada occupies most of the northern part of North America and is the second-largest country in the world after Russia. • The United States is the third-largest country. Section 1

  14. Major Landforms (cont.) • Most of the United States stretches across the middle part of North America. • The 48 states in this part of the country are contiguous, or joined together inside a common boundary. • Alaska lies in the northwestern part of North America, adjacent to Canada, and Hawaii is an island group in the Pacific Ocean. Section 1

  15. Major Landforms (cont.) • A broad lowland runs along the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico coasts. • In northeastern areas, the thin and rocky soil constrains, or limits, farming. • A fertile, hilly area called the Piedmont stretches inland from the coastal plain. • Harbors along the Atlantic coast have led to the growth of shipping ports. Section 1

  16. Major Landforms (cont.) • The cities of Halifax, Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C., all lie along or near the Atlantic coast, forming a connected area of urban communities called a megalopolis. • The coastal plain along the Gulf of Mexico is wider than the Atlantic plain, and soils in this region are better than those along the Atlantic coast. Section 1

  17. Major Landforms (cont.) • Large cities here include Houston and New Orleans. West and north of the eastern coastal plain are highland areas that include the Appalachian Mountains. • West of the eastern highlands are vast interior lowlands. • In the north lies the Canadian Shield, a horseshoe-shaped area of rocky hills, lakes, and evergreen forests that wraps around the Hudson Bay. Section 1

  18. Major Landforms (cont.) • With poor soil and a cold climate, the Canadian Shield is not farmable, but it does contain many mineral deposits such as iron ore, copper, and nickel. • South of the Canadian Shield and west of the Appalachians lie the Central Lowlands with grassy hills, rolling flatlands, thick forests, and fertile farmland. Section 1

  19. Major Landforms (cont.) • Important waterways are the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. • Chicago, Detroit, and Toronto are located here. Section 1

  20. Major Landforms (cont.) • The Great Plains stretch west of the Mississippi River, gradually rising in elevation from east to west. • Much of this region is a prairie, or rolling inland grassland with fertile soil. • Grains, cattle, and reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas are important products here. Section 1

  21. Major Landforms (cont.) • West of the Great Plains is a cordillera, or a group of mountain ranges that run side by side. • At the eastern edge of the cordillera, the Rocky Mountains begin in Alaska and run south to New Mexico. • Near the Pacific coast, the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the Alaska Range mountain chains make up the western part of the cordillera. Section 1

  22. Major Landforms (cont.) • Mount McKinley in the Alaska Range rises to 20,320 feet (6,194 m), the highest point in North America. • Between the Pacific ranges and the Rocky Mountains is a stretch of dry basins and high plateaus. • In the southern part of this area, rivers have worn through rock to create canyons, or deep valleys with steep sides, including the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. Section 1

  23. A B C D Which statement is true about the Appalachian Mountains? A.Contains tallest U.S. mountain B.Oldest mountain range in U.S. C.Rich in gold deposits D.Both A and C Section 1

  24. Bodies of Water The region’s waterways provide transportation and electric power. Section 1

  25. Bodies of Water (cont.) • The United States and Canada have numerous freshwater lakes and rivers. • Many of the region’s rivers are navigable, or wide and deep enough to allow the passage of ships. • The Great Lakes—the world’s largest group of freshwater lakes—lie in the central part of the region. Section 1

  26. Bodies of Water (cont.) • Thousands of years ago, glaciersformed Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. • The waters of these connected lakes flow into the St. Lawrence River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. St. Lawrence Seaway and Locks Section 1

  27. Bodies of Water (cont.) • The St. Lawrence River, one of Canada’s most important rivers, flows for 750 miles (1,207 km) from Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the Atlantic Ocean. • Quebec, Montreal, and Ottawa developed in this area. St. Lawrence Seaway and Locks Section 1

  28. Bodies of Water (cont.) • For many years, various obstructions kept ships from navigating the entire route, or journey, from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. • Then, in the mid-1900s, the United States and Canada built the St. Lawrence Seaway, which links these bodies of water. St. Lawrence Seaway and Locks Section 1

  29. Bodies of Water (cont.) • The Mississippi river is North America’s longest river. It flows 2,350 miles (3,782 km), beginning as a stream in Minnesota and enlarging to a width of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. • The Mississippi River system is the major waterway for the central region. • It drains about 1.2 million square miles (3.1 million sq. km) of land, including all or part of 31 American states and much of central Canada. Section 1

  30. Bodies of Water (cont.) • The high ridge of the Rocky Mountains is called the Continental Divide. A divide is a high point that determines the direction that rivers flow. • Northeast of the Rockies, the Mackenzie River flows from the Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean, draining much of northern Canada’s interior. Section 1

  31. A B C D Which of the following is NOT a “Great Lake”? A.Lake Ontario B.Lake Champlain C.Lake Michigan D.Lake Huron Section 1

  32. Natural Resources The region has many energy, mineral, and other natural resources. Section 1

  33. Natural Resources (cont.) • Although the United States has oil and natural gas reserves, the country uses nearly three times the amount of oil that it produces and must import more in order to meet the nation’s needs. • Canada exports both oil and natural gas, much of it to the United States. • Canada’s area in or near the province of Alberta has the world’s largest reserves of oil in the form of oil mixed with sand. Section 1

  34. Natural Resources (cont.) • The United States and Canada also have significant amounts of coal. • Coal is mined in the Appalachian Mountains, Wyoming, and British Columbia. Section 1

  35. Natural Resources (cont.) • The rivers and lakes in some areas of the United States and Canada provide hydroelectric energy. • Niagara Falls is a major source of hydroelectric power for both countries. Section 1

  36. Natural Resources (cont.) • Farmers grow corn in the Central Lowlands, which receive plentiful rainfall, and wheat on the drier Great Plains. • The wet, mild climate of western Washington and Oregon supports dairy farming and the growing of fruits and vegetables. • Irrigation is used in the drier eastern areas of these two states to grow grain. Section 1

  37. Natural Resources (cont.) • The warm, wet valleys of central California yield more than 200 different crops. • In the south central part of British Columbia, fruits and vegetables are grown on irrigated land. Section 1

  38. Natural Resources (cont.) • Today, forests cover less than 50 percent of Canada and about one-third of the United States. • Still, lumber and wood products, such as paper, are major Canadian exports. Section 1

  39. Natural Resources (cont.) • The timber industry is also strong in the states of Oregon and Washington. • Coastal waters are important to the region’s economy and support large fishing industries. • In recent years, however, the region’s Atlantic fishing grounds have suffered from overfishing. Section 1

  40. A B C D Which of the following is a major export of Canada? A.Natural gas B.Lumber C.Coal D.All of the above Section 1

  41. Section 1-End

  42. The physical environment affects how people live. Section 2-Main Idea

  43. Content Vocabulary • drought • tornado • hurricane • blizzard Academic Vocabulary • diverse • adapt • restore Section 2-Key Terms

  44. This sea of red is actually a sea of cranberries. The small, red fruit––also known as bounce berries, crane berries, and rubies of the pines––grows on ground-hugging vines in wetlands and bogs. To harvest the cranberries, farmers flood the bogs. Small air pockets in the cranberries cause them to rise to the surface, where they can be gathered by harvesting machines. Read this section to learn more about the climates of the United States and Canada and how they influence farming and other human activities. Section 2-Picture This

  45. A B Does the area you live in experience tornadoes? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  46. The Great New England Hurricane of 1938 tore through Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, killing nearly 600 people and injuring three times that many. The destruction of homes, other structures, boats, and the fishing industry was almost immeasurable. Unlike today, the storm was hardly reported by national newspapers and radio stations. Section 2

  47. A Varied Region Most people in the United States and Canada live in temperate climate regions. Section 2

  48. A Varied Region (cont.) • The vast territory of the United States and Canada is diverse in both climates and vegetation. • Most people live in the middle latitudes where climates are more moderate. • The extremely cold tundra climate along the Arctic Ocean’s coastline prevents the growth of trees and most plants. United States and Canada: Climate Zones Section 2

  49. A Varied Region (cont.) • In the subarctic region farther south, forests of evergreens are specially adapted to the climate. • The area from southern Alaska to northern California has a marine west coast climate of year-round mild temperatures and abundant rainfall. United States and Canada: Climate Zones Section 2

  50. A Varied Region (cont.) • Southern California has a Mediterranean climate of warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters with much less rainfall than in northern areas. United States and Canada: Climate Zones Section 2