Student Expectation B.10.B • Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
Instructions: • For each body system, you will need to: - cut out the diagram from your handouts, label the structures from the system slide, and color the items you label - Give the system’s functions. Page 892 - List the interrelationships the system has with other systems.
List of Body Systems Lymphatic/Immune System Nervous System Reproductive System Respiratory System Endocrine System Integumentary System Muscular System Skeletal System Circulatory System Digestive System Excretory System
Integumentary System Structures: - Skin Crossection (pg. 934) label epedermis, dermis, hypodermis, hair, sweat gland, sweat pore, oil gland (also known as sebaceous gland) • Draw a Finger label the fingernail Function: • Serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature; provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Skin is largest organ.
Integumentary System Interrelationship • Covers all other systems • Endocrine: Hormones stimulate oil secretion in skin • Immune: First line of defense • Digestive: Creation of Vitamin D • Nervous- stimulus response • Excretory – helps regulates body temperature by releasing sweat and gasses.
Muscular System Structures: • muscle tissue types (pg. 926) label skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and give brief description of each • structure of skeletal muscle (pg. 927) label skeletal muscle, bundle of muscle fibers, single muscle fiber Function: • Works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement; helps to circulate blood and move food through the digestive system.
MUSCULAR system interrelationships • Circulatory: Circulates O2 to muscles (heart is composed of cardiac muscle) • Skeletal: helps creates movement • Digestive: provides sugar needed for ATP synthesis • Nervous: Stimulates muscle contraction and movement
Skeletal System Structures: - Bone Cross Section (pg. 923) label bone marrow, spongy bone, compact bone, osteocyte (bone cell) • Knee Structure (pg. 925) label femur bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, red marrow • Function: • Supports body, protects internal organs, allows movement, stores minerals, provides a site for RBC formation.
SKELETAL system interrelationships • Muscular: Provides support, creates movement • Circulatory: provides RBCs • Digestive: Provides nutrients needed for healthy • bone growth • Endocrine: hormones regulate growth • Nervous: Protection of brain/spinal cord
Circulatory System • Structures: Circulatory System (pg. 944) Label capillaries (4), artery, vein, vena cava (2), aorta, heart, blood vessels Artery Cross Section (pg.953) Label white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells • Function: • Brings O2, nutrients and hormones to cells, fights infection, removes cell waste, regulates body temperature, carries CO2 to lungs.
CIRCULATORY System Interrelationships • Endocrine: Circulates hormones • Lymphatic: Returns fluids to circulatory system • Digestive: Brings nutrients that were reabsorbed in intestines to cells that need them • Excretory System: Removes wastes from blood stream • Muscular: Provides sugars and O2 needed for ATP synthesis during muscle contraction
Digestive System Structures: Digestive system (pg. 979) Label mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, liver, salivary glands Function: • Converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food; eliminates wastes
DIGESTIVE System Interrelationships • Excretory: Eliminates nitrogenous wastes produced. • Circulatory: Moves nutrients through body. • Endocrine: Hormones allow organs to function/digest properly, metabolism, hunger • Muscular: Muscle increases movement of food through the whole digestive tract
Excretory System • Structures: Excretory System (pg. 986) Label kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra (also involved – skin and lungs) • Function: • Eliminates waste products from the body in ways that help maintain homeostasis.
EXCRETORY System Interrelationships • Circulatory: Filters nitrogenous wastes from blood in kidneys • Lymphatic: Maintains water balance in blood • Digestive: nitrogenous wastes reabsorbed can exit; Urea-made in liver • Endocrine: hormones regulate
Lymphatic / Immune Systems Structures: - Lymphatic/Immune System (pg. 955) White blood cells, tonsils, thymus, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, (also included are white blood cells and lymph vessels) Function: • Immune: Protects body from disease. • Lymphatic: Collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns to the fluid to the circulatory system.
Lymphatic / Immune SystemsInterrelationships • Digestive: Pathogens ingested are destroyed • Excretory: Fluid is filtered in kidneys • Circulatory: WBCs travel in blood vessels; fluid is returned into vessels • Skeletal: Cells are made in bone marrow • Integumentary: Skin acts as a barrier
Nervous System Structures: - Nervous System (pg. 904) label brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves. Function: • Recognizes and coordinates body’s response to changes in internal and external environments.
NERVOUS system Interrelationships • Integumentary: Sense of touch • Respiratory: Involuntary breathing • Muscular: Impulse to contract • Digestive: controls hunger
Reproductive System • Structures: Female Reproductive System (pg. 1012) Label ovary, Fallopian tube, uterus, vagina, cervix Male Reproductive System (pg. 1010) Label testes, urethra, penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicle • Function: • Creates gametes/reproductive cells, • Nurtures/protects developing embryo (females)
REPRODUCTIVE System Interrelationships • Muscular: supports reproductive organs and are active during childbirth • Endocrine: Secretes hormones that control sex organs • Digestive: developing fetus crowds digestive organs during pregnancy, which can cause heartburn, constipation, etc.
Respiratory System Structures: -Respiratory diagram (pg. 957) Label nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs Function: • Provides O2 needed for cellular respiration and removes excess CO2 from the body.
RESPIRATION System Interrelationships • Muscular: Uses O2, increases respiration during exercise • Circulatory: Circulates O2 and CO2 • Nervous: “Fight or Flight” affects breathing • Excretory: Kidneys dispose of other metabolic wastes (other than CO2)
Endocrine System Structures: • Endocrine diagram (pg. 1003, 1005, 1006) Label hypothalamus, pancreas, ovaries, testes. Label the following glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal Function: • Controls growth, development, metabolism and maintains homeostasis.
ENDOCRINE System Interrelationships • Reproductive: stimulate puberty and birth of child (i.e. contractions, “water breaking”) • Digestive: stimulates metabolism of sugars • Immune: helps with immune responses • Circulatory: provides main transport medium for hormones • Respiration: Epinephrine increases respiration by dilating bronchioles
Skeletal System Facts • When you are born, you have over 300 bones. As you grow these bones fuse together and result in about 206 bones. • The largest bone is the pelvis, or hip bone. In fact it is made of six bones joined firmly together. • The longest bone is the 'femur', in the thigh. It makes up almost one quarter of the body's total height. • The smallest bone is the 'stirrup', deep in the ear. It is hardly larger than a grain of rice. • The ears and end of the nose do not have bones inside them. Their inner supports are cartilage or 'gristle', which is lighter and more flexible than bone. This is why the nose and ears can be bent. • After death, cartilage rots faster than bone. This is why the skulls of skeletons have no nose orears.
Muscular System Facts • There are about 60 muscles in the face. Smiling is easier than frowning. It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown. • The longest muscle in the body is the sartorius, from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It rotates the thigh outwards and bends the knee. • The smallest muscle in the body is the stapedius, deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing. • The biggest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus, in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking, running and climbing steps.
Circulatory System Facts • The heart beats around 3 billion times in the average person's life. • About 2 million blood cells die in the human body every second, and the same number are born each second. • Within a tiny droplet of blood, there are some 5 million red blood cells, 300,000 platelets and 10,000 white cells. • It takes about 1 minute for a red blood cell to circle the whole body. • Red blood cells make approximately 250,000 round trips of the body before returning to the bone marrow, where they were born, to die. • Red blood cells may live for about 4 months circulating throughout the body, feeding the 60 trillion other body cells.
Nervous System Facts • The brain looks like a giant, wrinkled walnut. • Unlike other body cells, brain cells can not regenerate. Once brain cells are damaged they are not replaced. • The brain and spinal cord are surrounded and protected by cerebrospinal fluid.
Immune System Facts • The skin secretes antibacterial substances. These substances explain why you don't wake up in the morning with a layer of mold growing on your skin - most bacteria and spores that land on the skin die quickly. • Tears and mucus contain an enzyme (lysozyme) that breaks down the cell wall of many bacteria. • Lymph nodes contain filtering tissue and a large number of lymph cells. When fighting certain bacterial infections, the lymph nodes swell with bacteria and the cells fighting the bacteria, to the point where you can actually feel them. Swollen lymph nodes may therefore be a good indication that you have an infection of some sort.
Digestive System Facts • Adults eat about 500 kg of food per year. • 1.5 litres of saliva are produced each day. • The oesophagus is approximately 25cm long. • Muscles contract in waves to move the food down the oesophagus. This means that food would get to a person's stomach, even if they were standing on their head. • An adult’s stomach can hold approximately 1.5 litres of material. • Every day 11.5 litres of digested food, liquids and digestive juices flow through the digestive system, but only 100 mls of fluid are lost in faeces. • We get two sets of teeth. Our 20 'Baby Teeth’ are replaced starting at around 6-7 years of age with our 32 ‘Adult Teeth’.
Respiratory System Facts • At rest, the adult body takes in and breathes out about 6 liters of air each minute. • The right lung is slightly larger than the left. • Hairs in the nose help to clean the air we breathe as well as warming it. • The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km per hour. • The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court. • The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600 kilometers if placed end to end. • We lose half a liter of water a day through breathing. This is the water vapor we see when we breathe onto glass. • A person at rest usually breathes between 12 and 15 times a minute. • The breathing rate is faster in children and women than in men.