project scope management mohammad a rob n.
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Project Scope Management Mohammad A. Rob

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Project Scope Management Mohammad A. Rob

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  1. Project Scope ManagementMohammad A. Rob

  2. Importance of Good Project Scope Management • Studies found that user involvement, a clear project mission, a clear statement of requirements, and proper planning as being important for project success • Improper project definition and scope is the main reasons projects fail

  3. What is Project Scope Management? • Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them • Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling whatis or is not included in the project • The project team and stakeholders must have the same understanding of what products will be produced as a result of a project and what processes will be used in producing them

  4. What is Project Scope Management? • The term scope may refer to: • Product scope: The features and functions that characterize a product or service • Project scope: The work that must be done to deliver a product with the specified features and functions • A project generally results in a single product, but that product may include subsidiary components, with each having its own scope • Completion of the project scope is measured against the project plan, but completion of the product scope is measured against product requirements

  5. Project Scope Management Processes • There are five processes: • Initiation: beginning a project or continuing to the next phase • Scope planning: developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions • Scope definition: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components • Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of the project scope • Scope change control: controlling changes to project scope

  6. Project Scope Management Processes

  7. Project Scope Management Processes

  8. Project Initiation Process • Initiation is the process of formally authorizing a new project or continuing an existing project to its next phase. • Typically a project is not initiated until a need assessment or feasibility study of the project is completed. • The input to the project initiation is a product description which documents the characteristics of the product or service that the project was undertaken • The output is a project charter which is a document that formally authorizes a project.

  9. Project Initiation: Identifying Potential Projects • Many organizations follow a planning process for selecting IT projects • First develop an IT strategic plan based on the organization’s overall strategic plan that addresses organizational strengths and weaknesses, business opportunities and threats, future trends, projecting needs for new product or services • Then perform a business area analysis that identifies business processes that are central to achieving strategic goals • Then define potential projects, their scope, benefits, and constraints • Then select the IT project and assign resources

  10. Project Initiation: Identifying Potential Projects:Weighted Scoring Model • A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria • First identify criteria important to the project selection process • Then assign weights (percentages) to each criterion so they add up to 100% • Then assign scores to each criterion for each project • Multiply the scores by the weights and get the total weighted scores • The higher the weighted score, the better

  11. Project Initiation: Sample Weighted Scoring Model for Project Selection

  12. Project Initiation: Project Charter • A project charter is a key output of the project initiation process • A project charter is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project’s objectives and management • It should include: • The business need that the project to be undertaken • The product description • Key project stakeholders should sign a project charter to acknowledge agreement on the need and intent of the project

  13. Project Initiation: Project Charter • Key parts of the project charter are: • Projects title and date of authorization • The project manager’s name and contact information • A brief scope statement for the project • A summary of the planned approaches to project planning • A roles and responsibilities matrix • A sign-off section for signatures of key project stakeholders • A comments section in which stakeholders can provide important comments related to the project

  14. Project Initiation: Sample Project Charter • Project Title: Information Technology (IT) Upgrade Project • Project Start Date: March 4, 1999 Projected Finish Date: December 4, 1999 • Project Manager: Kim Nguyen, 691-2784, • Project Objectives: Upgrade hardware and software for all employees (approximately 2,000) within 9 months based on new corporate standards. See attached sheet describing the new standards. Upgrades may affect servers and midrange computers as well as network hardware and software. Budgeted $1,000,000 for hardware and software costs and $500,000 for labor costs. • Approach: • Update the IT inventory database to determine upgrade needs • Develop detailed cost estimate for project and report to CIO • Issue a request for quotes to obtain hardware and software • Use internal staff as much as possible to do the planning, analysis, and installation

  15. Project Initiation: Sample Project Charter (contd.) Roles and Responsibilities

  16. Project Scope Planning Process • Scope planning is the process of progressively elaborating and documenting the project work (scope) that produces the product of the project. • The main inputs to this process are product description and project charter • The main output is the project scope statement, which forms the basis for an agreement between the project and the project customer by identifying both the project objectives and the project deliverables

  17. Project Scope Planning: Scope Statement • A scope statement provides a documented basis for making future decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of the project scope among stakeholders. • It should include • Project justification: the business need of the project • Project’s product: a brief summary of the product description • Project deliverables: A list of major project deliverables or summary-level sub-products • Project objectives: a statement of what determines project success quantified in terms of cost, schedule, and quality

  18. Project Scope Definition Process • Scope definition involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components • Good project definition can • help improve the accuracy of cost, duration, and resource estimates • define a baseline for performance measurement and control • aids in clear responsibility assignments • Poor project definition leads to a higher cost due to changes in project rhythm, increased time, lower productivity, and poor worker morale

  19. Project Scope Definition • The main input to the scope definition process is the scope statement. • The main output to the scope definition is the work breakdown structure (WBS), an outcome-oriented grouping of project components that organizes and defines the total scope of the project • The work that is not in the WBS is outside of the scope of the project

  20. Project Scope Definition: The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • A WBS is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes • It is often depicted as a task-oriented family tree of activities. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed description of the project deliverables • It is usually organized around project products or by phases • It can either be developed as an organizational chart or ina tabular form, which can help people visualize the whole project and all of its main parts

  21. Project Scope Definition: Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Product

  22. Project Scope Definition: Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Phase

  23. Project Scope Definition: Intranet WBS in Tabular Form 1.0 Concept 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.2 Define Requirements 1.2.1 Define user requirements 1.2.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define system requirements 1.2.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.5 Develop project plan 1.6 Brief web development team 2.0 Web Site Design 3.0 Web Site Development 4.0 Roll Out 5.0 Support

  24. Project Scope Definition: Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart in Microsoft Project

  25. Project Scope Definition: Approaches to Developing WBSs • Using guidelines: Some organizations, like the U.S. Department of Defense, provide guidelines for preparing WBSs, which includes cost estimates for each task in the summary and detailed level. Contractor’s follow this guideline. • The analogy approach: It often helps to review WBSs of similar projects performed before. • The top-down approach: Start with the largest items of the project and keep breaking them down • The bottoms-up approach: Start with the detailed tasks and roll them up

  26. Basic Principles for Creating WBSs 1. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. 2. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it. 3. A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it. 4. The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed; it should serve the project team first and other purposes only if practical. 5. Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency and buy-in. 6. Each WBS item must be documented to ensure accurate understanding of the scope of work included and not included in that item. 7. The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in the project according to the scope statement.

  27. Scope Verification and Scope Change Control Processes • It is very difficult to create a good scope statement and WBS for a project • It is even more difficult to verify project scope and minimize scope changes • Many IT projects suffer from scope creep - the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger • Many IT projects fail due to scope problems and creep • Thus it is very important to verify the project scope and develop a process for controlling scope changes

  28. Scope Verification Process • Scope verification involves formal acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders. It requires reviewing deliverables and work results to ensure that all were completed correctly and satisfactorily • Input: stakeholders review documents that are created earlier, which include work results (deliverables), product specification (from SDLC), work breakdown structure, and project plan. • The output is formal acceptance

  29. Scope Change Control Processes • Scope change control is concerned with • influencing the factors that create scope changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon • determining that a scope change has occurred • managing the actual change when and if they occur • The main inputs to the scope change control are WBS, and change requests • The output is scope changes, which is any modification to the agreed-upon project scope as defined by the approved WBS • Scope changes often require adjustment of cost, time, quality, and other project objectives

  30. Scope Change Control:Factors Causing IT Project Problems

  31. Scope Change Control: Suggestions for Improving User Input • Insist that all projects have a sponsor from the user organization • Make all documents available to stakeholders including project charter, scope statement, and work breakdown structure • Have users on the project team. They provide excellent input all the time. Co-locate users with the developers for better communication • Have regular meetings. Many IT project fail due to lack of meetings • Deliver something to project users and sponsor on a regular basis

  32. Scope Change Control: Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements • Develop and follow a requirements management process • Employ techniques such as prototyping, use case modeling, and Joint Application Design to thoroughly understand user requirements • Put all requirements in writing and keep them current • Create a requirements management database • Provide adequate testing • Use a process for reviewing requested changes from a systems perspective • Emphasize completion dates