Metaphor and Extended Metaphor By: Chelsea McKean
Definition of Metaphor • A figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity without using the words like or as.
... Example • It is raining cats and dogs. • Love is a fragile flower opening to the warmth of Spring. • He has the heart of a lion. • You are the sun in my sky.
Definition of Extended Metaphor • A metaphor that continues throughout a series of sentences, through a stanza or a poem, often by multiple comparisons of unlike objects or ideas. With the purpose of expanding or clarifying an idea.
...Example • Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate:Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,And summer's lease hath all too short a date:Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;And every fair from fair sometime declines,By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;But thy eternal summer shall not fadeNor lose possession of that fair thou owest;Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,When in eternal lines to time thou growest:So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,So long lives this and this gives life to thee -William Shakespeare
…Another Example • Hope Is The Thing Hope is the thing with feathersThat perches in the soul,And sings the tune--without the words,And never stops at all,And sweetest in the gale is heard;And sore must be the stormThat could abash the little birdThat kept so many warm.I've heard it in the chillest land,And on the strangest sea;Yet, never, in extremity,It asked a crumb of me. -Emily Dickinson
How to Tell? • You can tell metaphors apart from extended metaphors by this: • Metaphors- • You only have one/a few comparisons through out the poem ranging on different objects • Extended Metaphors- • Many comparisons through out the poem all relating to the main theme
What Are They Comparing? • What do the following metaphors compare: • The inside of the car was a refrigerator. • The teenage boy’s stomach was a bottomless pit. • The homework was a breeze. • Her dog was the sunshine of her life. • Cindy was such a mule. We couldn’t get her to change her mind.
Your Turn… 1. Write three metaphors down 2. Choose one of the three that you like best 3. Try to write an extended metaphor off of the metaphor that you picked 4. Share with a partner or class -If you are stuck you may use the metaphor “life is a river” to get you started on your extended metaphor