Metaphor Metaphor compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Affliction then is ours; / We are the trees whom shaking fastens more. --George Herbert
Synecdoche • Synecdoche is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa). • Farmer Jones has two hundred head of cattle and three hired hands.
Metonymy • Metonymy is another form of metaphor, very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared. The orders came directly from the White House.
Personification • Personification metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes--attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified. The ship began to creak and protest as it struggled against the rising sea. We bought this house instead of the one on Maple because this one is more friendly.
Hyperbole • Hyperbole, the counterpart of understatement, deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect. There are a thousand reasons why more research is needed on solar energy.
Allusion • Allusion is a short, informal reference to a literary work, famous person or event. “We had traveled too far into a net of expectations and left no crumbs behind.” The Scarlet Ibis
Oxymoron • Oxymoron is a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun. Jumbo shrimp Act naturally Cold fire
Alliteration • Alliteration is the recurrence of initial consonant sounds. Done well, alliteration is a satisfying sensation.
Onomatopoeia • Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word describes. "Buzz," for example, when spoken is intended to resemble the sound of a flying insect. Other examples include these: slam, pow, screech, whirr, crush, sizzle, crunch, wring, wrench, gouge, grind, mangle, bang, blam, pow, zap, fizz, urp, roar, growl, blip, click, whimper, and, of course, snap, crackle, and pop.
Apostrophe • Apostrophe interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent. O books who alone are liberal and free, who give to all who ask of you and enfranchise all who serve you faithfully! -- Richard de Bury
Assonance: similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants: A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid.
Allegory • A multi-layered literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent distractions. Animal Farm is an allegory.
Adage • A familiar proverb or wise saying.
Analogy • A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way. Foot::leg as hand::arm "His head was like the dome of a cathedral."
Cliché • Overused expression Easy as pie There’s no place like home.
Climax • Highest point of interest in a literary work
Colloquialism • Informal words or expressions not acceptable in formal writing Y’all wanna get some grub?
Conceit • Fanciful extended metaphor
Connotation • The implied or associated meaning of a word Brother has many more accepted meanings than a male sibling.
Denotation • The literal or dictionary meaning of a word.
Dialect • A variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar of pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographic region. *think To Kill a Mockingbird
Dialogue • Conversation between two or more people
Diction • Word choice made by a writer
Ellipses • Omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from context. Some people prefer dogs; others cats.
Epiphany • A moment of sudden revelation
Epitaph • Inscription on tombstone
Flashback • Insertion of an earlier event into the normal chronological order
Flat Character • Embodies a single quality; does not develop in the course of the story
Foreshadowing • Prepares reader for what is to come next
Genre • Major category of literature Poetry, fiction, drama
Hyperbole • Intentional exaggeration for effect Her bag weighed a ton.
Idiom • An expression in a given language which cannot be understood in a lteral sense. It was raining cats and dogs. We were in a pickle.
Imagery • Using language to create vivid images that appeal to one of the senses. “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.” -Hamlet
Inference • Using evidence to draw a conclusion
Irony • Incongruity between what happens and what is expected to happen It was ironic that the kids wished Miss Brown many more happy birthdays when she would not live to see another one.
Jargon • Specialized language Doctors: stethoscope, malpractice, scalpel Auto Mechanics: carburetor, muffler, transmission
Juxtaposition • Placing two elements side by side to show contrast Romeo and Juliet is full of structural juxtapositions between light and dark and between age and youth.
Metaphor • Direct comparison of two unlike things “All the world’s a stage”
Metonymy • Substituting the name of one object for another closely associated The pen is mightier than the sword.
Mood • Emotional atmosphere of a work *the reader’s side
Tone • The attitude a writer has toward his subject *writer’s side
Narrator • Who tells the story
Parallelism • The use of corresponding syntactical forms (creating balance in the sentence) We added the milk, beat the eggs, and sifted the flour.
Paraphrase • Restatement of text in a different form
Parody • Humorous interpretation of a serious work
Pun • A play on words
Round Character • A character who develops or changes throughout the course of a work
Satire • Use of humor to point out imperfections in people or social institutions
Simile • Like is like a box of chocolates
Setting • Time, place, and environment