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Metaphor

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Metaphor

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  1. Metaphor Using the Science of Learning to Maximize Teaching & Learning Opportunities Creative Teaching Framework

  2. Workshop Objectives • Identify the impact of quality teaching on student learning • Identify the science and art of effective teaching • Analyse 10 core principles of learning • Utilize a range of resources (including information technologies) to construct creative learning designs and teaching strategies • Use the Creative Teaching Framework to teach effectively within your personal style

  3. Teaching Quality – the big factor in Student Learning “…nothing is as important to learning as the quality of a student’s teacher. The difference between a good teacher and a bad teacher is so great that fifth-grade students who have poor teachers in grades three to five score roughly 50 percentile points below similar groups of students who are fortunate enough to have effective teachers” (Izumi, T. L. & Evers, W. M., 2002. Teacher Quality, ix) “The effect of the teacher far overshadows classroom variables, such as previous achievement level of students, class size…heterogeneity of students, and the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the classroom.” (Rivers, C. J. & Sanders, W. L., 2002. Teacher Quality and Equity in Educational Opportunity, p.17)

  4. What’s Worthwhile about Quality Teaching • Turns many students on to learning • Makes the job more productive and fun “Against boredom even the gods themselves struggle in vain” Friedrich Nietzsche

  5. Big Questions • What are the specific things that teachers do that lead students to perceive them as Effective & Interesting? • How do they do they create Experiences that gets these results?

  6. My Personal View Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity. Charles Mingus

  7. In Awesomely Simple Terms (he says hopefully) A problem solved by R - R - S which takes SHAPE

  8. The Problem: Descent into the World of Bla 100 80 60 40 20 A T T E N T I O N Bla Bla Bla (%age) 0 15 30 45 60 SESSION TIME (minutes)

  9. Just what you fancy after lunch at 2pm Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object Then follow this with 40 mins of exposition and equations

  10. Typical Attention Span

  11. The brain and motivation(why many students are not well motivated) Cloniger 1987 argued that 3 neural systems run our lives • The Cortex’s quest for Novelty • 2. The Mid-Brains quest for Pleasure • 3. The Lower-Brains desire to avoid Pain

  12. It’s in ‘The Experience’ • Much of classroom learning is not novel or pleasurable. Some may even be painful • So, how might teachers createExperiences which: • Add novelty and/or pleasure to learning • Take away some of the ‘pain’ of learning

  13. Re-defining the World of Bla 100 80 60 40 20 A T T E N T I O N (%age) 0 15 30 45 60 SESSION TIME (minutes)

  14. Good Teaching – Science or Art

  15. The Serial Position Curve 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Primacy Effect Recency Effect Proportion Correct von Restorff Effect 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Position on List

  16. Psychological Effects • Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily) • Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently presented items or experiences to be remembered best) • Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember distinct or novel items and experiences)

  17. Model of Human Memory E N V I R O N M E N T Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste Working Memory 5-9 bits of information Long – Term Memory Forgetting Infinite Capacity Effective transfer from Working Memory to Long –Term Memory is crucial. This requires information to be well organised, meaningful and sufficiently rehearsed

  18. Physiology of learning Learning results in connections between neurons As we learn neurons connect with each other and pass on information. At the physiological level, learning results from the development of connected groups of neurons. As learning is reinforced, myelin is produced which enhances long term memory.

  19. Learning is part of an Holistic System To learn is not the special province of a single specialized realm of human functioning such as cognition or perception. It involves the integrated functioning of the total organism – thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. (Kolb, 1995, p.148) In basic terms, we learn better when we perceive the learning as useful (e.g., satisfy some important need), believe we can be successful at it and enjoy it

  20. Meeting Human Needs • Survive and Reproduce • Belong – Love, Share and Cooperate • Power – Control and Competition • Freedom – Autonomy and Choice • Fun – Humour and Laughter (From the writings of William Glasser)

  21. Psychological States At the psychological level our state is how we think, feel and perceive at any given moment. “The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your ability, but on the state of your mind…” Anthony Robbins, 2001 As teachers we can certainly influence the ‘here and now experience’ and, if we do that well, we can promote better psychological states

  22. Magic Eggs - Story “Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz I’m laying them” “We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions, usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though they were concrete realities” (Adler, H., 1996)

  23. Cognitive Dissonance New experience, which creates a perception that… I’m laying eggs Existing Beliefs Cognitive Dissonance Chickens lay eggs I am not a chicken

  24. Cognitive Dissonance New experience, which creates a perception that… I can do this Existing Beliefs Cognitive Dissonance I can’t do this I am not smart

  25. Reframing Reframing refers to putting things in different contexts (frames or reference), thus giving them different meanings. Reframing is the essence of creative thinking. “If you don’t get the result you want, do something different” (Adler, 1996)

  26. Example of System Behaviour 1. Meet Core Needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – Glasser, 1988) Constructing Productive Subjective Experience Participation & Learning Buy into the experience 3. Reframing 2.Positive Psychological State Rapport Building

  27. Towards a Science of Learning There is increasing recognition of a substantive and validated research base that is beginning to constitute a ‘science of learning’. For example, Marzano (1992) argued that: “…over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough research and theory about learning to derive a truly research based-model of instruction” (p.2) More recently, Darling-Hammond & Bransford (2006), from surveying the research findings, concluded that: There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching, and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supports that work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine (p.12)

  28. Core Principles of Learning • Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly communicated • Learners’ prior knowledge is activated and connected to new learning • Motivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated into learning designs • Content is organized around key concepts and principles that are fundamental to understanding the key structure of a subject • Self-directed learning is encouraged through facilitating the development of good thinking

  29. Core Principles of Learning [cont’d] 6.Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage the range of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic) • Learning design takes into account the working of memory systems • Learner competence is promoted through active and experiential learning • A psychological climate is created which is positive, success orientated and promotes self-esteem • Assessment practices are integrated into the learning design to promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality feedback

  30. Core Principles - A Synergetic System While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to effective pedagogy, they are not discrete or separate in that they should be considered independently of each other. In fact, they are mutually supporting, interdependent and potentially highly synergetic. As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight: Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individual features thrown together by the teacher. It works more like a machine, with the parts operating together and reinforcing one another, driving the vehicle forward. (p.75)

  31. Using Core Principles Thoughtfullyin the Situated Context of learning • The core principles of learning must always be used thoughtfully • in relation to the following situated factors: • The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual understanding, competence, etc) • Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior competence, learner preferences, etc) • Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning environment, facilities, resources, etc) • It’s a bit like driving – good drivers are able to adjust situationally to different and changing driving conditions

  32. Teaching as Art? …no science of teaching exists, or can exist, that will be so prescriptive as to make teaching routine. The best that we can hope for – and it is substantial – is to have better tools from science with which teachers can use their heads. (Eisner, 1995, p.96)

  33. What is Creativity?A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand.(summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35) <> One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He was curious so he stopped and saw the ‘lights’ were a pair of cats eyes reflecting the light from his head lights. Percy got back in the car full of ideas and subsequently invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic. After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)

  34. Components of Highly Effective Human Performance What is it that top salespeople have? What is it that top comedians have? What is it that successful communicators with the opposite sex have?

  35. R – R -S • Results are the outcomes we want in any situation (e.g., sell more cars, make the audience laugh, get attractive dates) • Resources are the things we can bring into play in order to get our desired results • Strategies are the orchestrated use of our resources to get the results we desire What are the Results, Resources and Strategies of Creative Teachers?

  36. Creative Teaching Creative teaching occurs when a teacher combines existing knowledge in some novel form to get useful results in terms of facilitating student learning. This may be either planned before the act of teaching, or invented as a response to the demands of the learning situation How technical am I? Do you know Java script well? Yes, I do, I once had a girlfriend from Jakarta

  37. Creative Planning Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. • What would happen to the ball if these conditions were changed: • The opposition played a trick on David and put down a much heavier ball • David plays a trick on the opposition by doing extra power training and can now hit the ball some 10% harder

  38. A Creative Solution – Situated Invention? Kolkata Story

  39. The 4 Results Creative Teachers Seek (and usually get) Create good rapport Gain attention quickly when desired Make learning relevant and meaningful Imbue positive beliefs and psychological states

  40. Importance of these Results • Its biologically impossible to learn anything that you’re not paying attention to; the attentional mechanism drives the whole learning and memory process” (Robert Sylwester, 1998) • “Rapport is the ultimate tool for producing results with other people”(Anthony Robbins, 2001) • “If you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right”(Henry Ford) • “The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your ability, but on the state of your mind…” (Anthony Robbins, 2001) • “The more we make school learning like real life, the more the brain, with its rich capabilities, will sort it out”(Eric Jensen, 1997)

  41. How Creative Teachers get these Results - (SHAPE) • Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchors • Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty • Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learning • Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological states • Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures …and use these ResourcesCreatively

  42. The Power of SHAPE “We understand everything in human life through stories” (Jean-Paul Sartre) “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”(Edward De Bono) “Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn”(Lambert and Coombs) “The meaning of your communication is the response that you get” (Bandler & Grinder) “A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort”(Wlodkowski)

  43. Re-defining the World of BlaWhere X = ? 100 80 60 40 20 A T T E N T I O N X X X X X (%age) 0 15 30 45 60 SESSION TIME (minutes)

  44. Run Run Run The Wolf – Stag Effect Rest Rest Run Wolves and stags are equally fast. In a chase situation the stags run continually, but the wolves stop for rests. Do the stags usually escape?

  45. Resources (SHAPE) to use Strategicallyand Creatively to Make Teaching Interesting • Tell Stories that provide context for learning, create emotional anchors and model good dispositions • Use Humour to provide novelty, illustrate learning and promote rapport • Reinforce content knowledge and make learning meaningful through challenging but achievable Activities • Maximise your Presentation Style to get attention, convey meaning, imbue positive beliefs and enhance psychological states • Use relevant Examples to clearly illustrate concepts and principles (Wolf-like tactics to create more Primacy, Recencyand von Restorff effects)

  46. Metaphor for Creative Teaching Total Pedagogy CREATIVE TEACHING COMPETENCE Strategies P H E A S CORE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

  47. Developing your Creative TeachingCompetence: • Desire to teach creatively • Understand the science and art of creative teaching • Develop a wide range of Resources, be able to Reframe and create interesting Strategies (get into great SHAPE) • Willingness to take some risks • Do it – Be the Best You Can (Total Pedagogy) A bit like a creative life “Dying is tragic, but dying without having actually ever lived is the ultimate tragedy” Eric Fromm

  48. Modelling SHAPE Resources Select a Resource Area below and model what it takes to develop highly effective use. Follow the question templates provided in the following slides: • Stories • Humour • Activities • Presentation Style • Examples

  49. Stories “We understand everything in human life through stories” Jean-Paul Sartre

  50. Humour “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”(Edward De Bono)