STDs caused by Bacteria Chlamydia, Gonorrhea Syphilis
Chlamydia • Most common Bacterial STD • 2 million people currently infected • 3 million more will acquire it this year • Transmitted • Through sexual activity • During childbirth
Symptoms of Chlamydia • 85% of women and 40% of men have no symptoms • Vaginal or urethral discharge • Burning with urination • Pelvic Pain (women) • Swelling and tenderness of the scrotum (men) • Genital ulcers
Long-term effects of Chlamydia • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Can damage the fallopian tubes and result in tubal scarring and infertility • Causes 25% of the infertility in women pursuing in vitro fertilization in the US • Symptoms • Pelvic and abdominal pain • Fever • Abnormal vaginal bleeding • Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy • Infants • Illness • Blindness
Diagnosis and Treatment • Diagnosis – lab test (genital fluids or urine) • Treated easily IF caught early • Treatment • Oral antibiotics • Newborn infants routinely receive antibiotic eye drops/ointment to prevent eye infection
Symptoms of Gonorrhea • Discharge from vagina or urethra • Pain during urination • Abnormal vaginal bleeding (“spotting”) – women • Pain and swelling around the testicles – men • 25-80% of women and a smaller percentage of men have no symptoms
Long-term effects of Gonorrhea • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • Pregnant women • Spontaneous abortion • Premature rupture of membranes • Preterm birth • May infect amniotic fluid • Blindness • Joint infection • Life-threatening blood infections
Diagnosis and Treatment • Diagnosis – Body fluids will be examined and tested • Treatment • Oral or injectable antibiotics • After treatment, infected individuals should be re-examined and tested again
Syphilis • Number of cases is again on the rise • Between 1940’s and 2000 – number of cases fell from approximately 100,000 to less than 6,000 • Today, beginning to rise again (36,000) • Called “The Great Imitator” • Many of the signs/symptoms resemble other diseases • Transmitted • Sexual activity • Contact with syphilitic sores • Passed to infants during childbirth
Symptoms of Syphilis • Primary Stage (10-90 days after infection) • Single sore (chancre) • Firm, round and painless • Occurs at spot where Syphilis entered body • Heals in 3-6 weeks if left untreated • Secondary Stage (2-8 weeks after infection) • Itch-less rash • Flu-like symptoms • Fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches and fatigue
Symptoms (cont) • Latent stage (2 or more years after) • Signs disappear and think cured • Attacks heart, blood vessels, and CNS • Late stage (10 to 30 years after) • Heart, skin, brain, spinal cord affected • Cannot be cured at this stage
Diagnosis and Treatment • Diagnosis – blood test • Treatment • Can be cured if caught early • Antibiotic • Will not repair or reverse the damage already caused by the disease • A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year.
STD’s caused by Viruses HPV, Genital herpes, Hepatitis, HIV CANNOT BE CURED!!!
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) • More than 100 strains of HPV • 40 cause genital infections • 6.2 million Americans are infected with genital HPV each year • 50% of sexually active Americans are or have been infected • 20 million currently have the virus • Another 80 million have been infected some time in the past • In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears the HPV infection naturally within two years • By the age of 50, 80% of women will have acquired genital HPV • Transmission • Genital Skin-to-skin contact • Contact with infected body fluids
Symptoms of HPV • Most patients have no symptoms • Genital and Anal Warts • 7% of infected people
Long-term effects of HPV • Cervical Cancer – Women • Genital Cancers – Men
Diagnosis and Treatment • Diagnosis • abnormalities detected on a Pap Smear – women • Most asymptomatic men do not know they are infected • Treatment • Topical medications applied to the wart • Decrease in size and disappear • Surgical removal (burning with a laser) • Freezing • Even with treatment, warts will often return
Genital Herpes • Most common sexually transmitted viral infection in US • 45 million people infected • 1 in 5 American age 12 or over have genital herpes • 2 types of herpes • HSV-1 and HSV-2 • Most cases of genital herpes are HSV-2 • Greatest risk factor is the total number sexual partners a person has had in their life
Transmission of Herpes • Skin to skin contact • Kissing with a sore • Touching a sore • Sexual activity • Exposure to infected body fluids • During childbirth
Symptoms of Herpes • Initial infection • Fever, headache and muscle aches • Lesions appear in area of exposure • Blisters which break and become ulcers • About 8 days after exposure • Painful and often burn or itch • Other symptoms • Burning with urination, vaginal or urethral discharge, tender swollen lymph nodes • Recurrent outbreaks • Skin lesions
Long-term effects of Herpes • NO CURE!!! • Can transmit to others even at time when not experiencing symptoms • 90% will experience at least one recurrence within 12 months of initial episode • Recurrences can occur for the remainder of the person’s life • Risk of spontaneous abortion and premature birth
Diagnosis and Treatment • Diagnosis – Viral cultures • As many as 90% do not know they are infected • Treatment • Anti-viral medications • Reduces the duration and intensity of symptoms
Being Responsible About STDs • Seek medical help right away • Complete the full course of medications • Have follow up testing done • Avoid all sexual activity while being treated • Notify ALL sexual partners
Safe Sex? Safer… but not Safe Sex
Birth Control Pills • Female hormones that are taken orally every day to prevent ovulation or affect the lining of the uterus so that it cannot support and nourish a fertilized egg. • Does NOT protect from STDs or HIV.
Think about it… • Approximately 1 in every 5 people using condoms for pregnancy protection will get pregnant during the first year
ABSTINENCE 100% WAY TO AVOID GETTING ONE OF THOSE!!
HIV and AIDS • AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome – a disease in which the immunes system of the patient is weakened • 1982 – 1600 cases were reported…700 deaths resulted • 2000 – AIDS was the 5th leading cause of death among adults from 25-44 years • HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus – a virus that attacks the immune system • Causes AIDS
Teens at Risk • Teen have one of the fastest growing rates of HIV
HIV and the Human Body • As the number of viruses increase…the number of T cells decrease…the immune system is weakened • Opportunistic infections– infections that occur in individuals who do not have healthy immune systems • HIV is progressive • It destroys the cells of the immune system over many months or years • AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV
Transmission of HIV • HIV lives inside cells and body fluids • Transmittedthough… • Blood • Semen • Vaginal secretions • Breast milk • NOT transmitted by • Toilet seats • Telephones • Food • Being in the same area • Casual physical contact – shaking hands and hugging • Insect bites • Sweat • Sneezing
Transmission of HIV • Sexual intercourse • Secretions containing HIV can enter a partner’s blood • Increases with number of sexual partners • Increases by having another STD that causes sores • Chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis • Sharing needles through IV drug use or • Un-sanitized tattooing or piercing needles • Mother to baby • Through the umbilical cord • During delivery • While nursing
Staying safe • Knowledge is the best defense! • Abstinence from sexual activity or using drugs • Avoid pressure situations • Practice refusal skills • Choose relationships carefully
HIV TESTING • ELISA TEST-more general, less specific, and less expensive. A person must have 2 positive ELISA TEST to take the Confirmation Test that is more expensive. • Western Blot Test-this is the Confirmation Test a person is given when they have 2 positive ELISA TEST. This test is more expensive and more specific.