Writing Across Common Core Standards Bradley County Schools Secondary In-Service August 3, 2012
Implementation of Common Core State Standards complements other work underway
Text Demands of Postsecondary Education #8 & 9 “Most of the required reading in college and workforce training programs is informational in structure and challenging in content; postsecondary education programs typically provide students with both a higher volume of such reading than is generally required in K–12 schools and comparatively little scaffolding.” (Common Core State Standards 2010a, 4)
Varieties of Writing in Content Areas Scientific lab report Essay or Poem for English Class Social Science Essay Void of personal opinion (based on truth) Sequence is extremely important. Discipline-specific vocabulary is essential to communication. Personal opinion or experiences and logical reasoning Language may include descriptive imagery. Often references one literary text Distanced stance Evidence included to support claim Logical reasoning to tie evidence to claim Often references multiple texts as evidence
Writing Like a Historian How would you approach teaching students to write like a historian?
Implementing the Reading Standards Instructional Scenario: While teaching a lesson about the Stamp Act in Grade 9, you provide students with three texts: an article from the Boston-Gazette, an article from a London newspaper, and a letter from a frustrated colonist. Given these documents, you ask students to answer the question: Was the Stamp Act an unreasonable and unfair tax?
Discipline-Specific Strategies for Instruction 4 What discipline-specific strategies will support implementation of the Literacy Standards in History/Social Studies?
Common Core Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12 www.corestandards.org
How are the Writing Standards organized? • College and Career Anchor Standards are broad standards that outline what students need to have in place to be college and career ready. • Each corresponding grade span standard falls under one of 4 categories: • Text types and purposes • Production and distribution of writing • Research to build and present knowledge • Range of writing
Text Types and Purposes for Writing in History • The last section of the Common Core Standards is explicitly written for 6-12 teachers in content areas other than ELA. • The Common Core Standards outline 2 types of writing in Science, History and Technical Subjects: • Writing arguments focused on science content • Writing informative/explanatory texts.
The Role of Opinion/Argument “While all three text types are important, the Standards put a particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is critical to college and career readiness.” (Common Core State Standards Initiative 2010b, 24)
Foundations of Argument Writing Before students can write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues, we must teach them to… Introduce and state opinions Support opinions with reasons Use words, phrases, or clauses to link opinion and reason Provide a concluding statement or section
Progression of Argument Writing Skills Look at p.64 to identify the progression of the new argument writing skills and those addressed in the grade band you teach.
Supporting Opinion/Argument Students who are college and career ready: “Use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reason clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others’ use of evidence.” (Common Core State Standards Initiative 2010a, 7)
Elements of Argument Claim: the position or assertion that supports an argument Evidence: the facts or reasons that support the claim Warrant: the chain of reasoning that connects the evidence to the claim Counterclaim: an opposing position or assertion Rebuttal: logical reasons for rejecting the counterclaim
Creating an Argument Topic: Should people be encouraged to commute by bicycle, rather than by car? Claim: People should be encouraged to commute by bicycle, rather than by car. Evidence: Maintaining a bicycle is significantly less expensive than maintaining a car. Warrant: Spending less money on commuting expenses is a good thing in this tough economy. Counterclaim: Some may say that riding a bicycle to work would increase commuting time and therefore decrease productivity and money earned. Rebuttal: However, bicycles can navigate rush-hour congestion more efficiently than cars. # 9
What is informational/explanatory writing? Informational/Explanatory writing conveys information accurately. This kind of writing serves one or more closely related purposes: to increase readers’ knowledge of a subject to help readers better understand a procedure or process to provide readers with an enhanced comprehension of a concept (Common Core State Standards Initiative 2010b, 23)
Key Ideas of Informational/Explanatory Writing Students are writing from expertise (what they already know). Students also draw from primary and secondary sources on the topic. Strategies for organizing and developing ideas vary by grade level.
Informational/Explanatory Writing in Your Classroom What kinds of informational/explanatory writing do students do in your classroom?
Constructed Response (WHST.9-10.2) • Explain how civil disobedience was used in the struggle for India’s independence.
Sample Task • Students compare George Washington’s Farewell Address to other foreign policy statements, such as the Monroe Doctrine, and analyze how both texts address similar themes and concepts regarding “entangling alliances.” (RI. 9 – 10.9)
Examining Student Work (Common Core State Standards Initiative 2010d, 64)
Incorporating Research and Writing into History and Social Studies Curriculum CCR 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. CCR 8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. CCR 9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (Common Core State Standards Initiative 2010a, 18)
Research Writing Strategy: RAFT (Billmeyer and Barton 1998)
Sample Performance Task • Essay Prompt: In the last paragraph of the “Gettysburg Address,” Lincoln shifts the focus of his speech away from what he says is its purpose at the end of the second paragraph. What reasons does he give for the shift in focus? What does Lincoln think is the task left to those listening to his speech? Use evidence from the text to support your analysis. Formulate an answer to these questions in a thoughtful brief essay.
Reflection What is one concept or idea that you want to immediately incorporate into your instruction? What is one concept or idea that you want to incorporate into your instruction in the next year? If your instruction guided your students to read and write like historians, how would it change student achievement?
Reflection # 22
References Baer, Justin, Stéphane Baldi, Kaylin Ayotte, and Patricia J. Green. 2007. The Reading Literacy of U.S. Fourth-Grade Students in anInternational Context: Results From the 2001and 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences U.S. Department ofEducation. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008017.pdf. Billmeyer, Rachel, and Mary Lee Barton. 1998. Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who? 2nd ed. Denver, CO: McREL. Bransford, John, National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, and National Research Counsil (U.S.) Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Common Core State Standards Initiative. 2010a. “Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.” Accessed January 1, 2011. http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards. ———. 2010b. “Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects: Appendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards and Glossary of Key Terms.” Accessed January 1, 2011. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf. ———. 2010c. “Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects: Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks.” Accessed January 1, 2011. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf. ———. 2010d. “Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects: Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing.” Accessed January 1, 2011. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_C.pdf. Strong American Schools. 2008. “Diploma to Nowhere.” Accessed December 22, 2010. http://www.deltacostproject.org/resources/pdf/DiplomaToNowhere.pdf. #5380