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Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets PowerPoint Presentation
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Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets

Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets

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Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets

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  1. Chapter 4 Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets PowerPoint presentation prepared by: Professor Rajiv Mehta Associate Professor of Marketing New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, N.J. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chapter Learning Objectives 1. The importance of culture to an international marketer 2. The origins and elements of culture 3. The impact of cultural borrowing 4. The strategy of planned change and its consequences

  3. Introduction Culture refers to “the human-made part of human environment—the sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society” Importance of culture in international marketing A successful marketer must be a student of culture Culture is pervasive in all marketing activities— in pricing, promotion, channels of distribution, product, packaging, and styling Understanding culture can determine success or failure in international marketing

  4. Culture’s Pervasive Impact • Culture influences every part of our lives • Cultures impact on birth rates in Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore • Birthrates have implications for sellers of diapers, toys, schools, and colleges • Consumption of different types of food influence is culture: Chocolate by Swiss, seafood by Japanese preference, beef by British, wines by France and Italy • Even diseases are influenced by culture: stomach cancer in Japan, and lung cancer in Spain

  5. Culture has been conceptualized as: “Software of the mind” culture is a guide for humans on how to think and behave; it is a problem-solving tool (Hofstede) An invisible barrier… a completely different way of organizing life, of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself” (Hall) A “thicket” (U.S. Ambassador Hodgson) Definitions and Origins of Culture Culture is the sum of the “values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation”

  6. Origins of Culture: Geography • Geography, which includes climate, topography, flora, fauna, and microbiology, influences our social institutions 2. Two researchers suggest that geography influences everything from history to present-day cultural values • First, Jared Diamond states that historically innovations spread faster east-to-west than north-to-south • Second, Philip Parker reports strong correlations between the latitude (climate) and the per capita GDP of countries

  7. For e.g., American trade policy depended on tobacco being the original source of the Virginia colony’s economic survival in the 1600s Origins of Culture: History • The impact of specific events in history can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural values, and even consumer behavior 2. The military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003 bred new cola brands, Mecca Cola, Muslim Up, and Arab Cola

  8. Origins of Culture: The Political Economy • For most of the 20th Century three approaches to governance competed for world dominance: fascism, communism, and democracy/free enterprise 2. Fascism fell in 1945; Communism crumbled in the 1990s 3. Necessary to appreciate the influence of the political economy on social institutions and cultural values and ways of thinking

  9. 2. Jet aircraft, air conditioning, televisions, computers, and the internet have all influenced culture 3. Arguably the greatest impact is the pill that has allowed women to have careers and freed men to spend more time with kids Origins of Culture: Technology • Technological innovations also impact institutions and cultural

  10. The family, social classes, group behavior, age groups, and how societies define decency and civility are interpreted differently within every culture (1) Family behaviorvaries across the world, e.g., extended families living together to Dad washing dishes (2) Religious value systems differ across the world,e.g., Muslims not allowed to eat pork to Hindus not allowed to consume beef Origins of Culture: Social Institutions • Social institutions including family, religion, school, the media, government, and corporations all affect culture

  11. (3) School andeducation, and literacy rates affect culture and economic growth (4)Media (magazines, TV, the Internet) influences culture and behavior (5) Government policies influence thethinking and behaviors citizens of adult citizens, e.g., the French government offers new “birth bonuses” of $800 given to women as an incentive to increase family size (6) Corporations influence culture via the products they market, e.g., MTV Origins of Culture: Social Institutions

  12. Cultural values Rituals Symbols Beliefs, and Thought processes Elements of Culture International marketers must design products, distribution systems, and promotional programs with due consideration to culture, which was defined as including five elements:

  13. Individualism/Collective Index (IDV), which focuses on self-orientation Power Distance Index (PDI), which focuses on authority orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), which focuses on risk orientation; and Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS), which focuses on assertiveness and achievement Elements of Culture: Cultural Values • Differences in cultural values, which is found to exist among countries, affects consumer behavior • Hofstede, who studied over 90,000 people in 66 countries, found that the cultures differed along four primary dimensions:

  14. The Individualism/Collective Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one’s self-interest High IDV cultures reflect an “I” mentality and tend to reward and accept individual initiative Low IDV cultures reflect a “we” mentality and generally subjugate the individual to the group Collectivism pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups, which protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty • Individualism/Collectivism Index: Individualism/Collectivism Index

  15. The Power Distance Index measures power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system Cultures with high PDI scores tend to be hierarchical and value power and social status High PDI cultures the those who hold power are entitled to privileges Cultures with low PDI scores value equality and reflect egalitarian views • Power Distance Index: Power Distance Index

  16. The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measures the tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity among members of a society High UAI cultures are highly intolerant of ambiguity, experience anxiety and stress, accord a high level of authority to rules as a means of avoiding risk Low UAI cultures are associated with a low level of anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance and dissent, and a willingness to take risks • Uncertainty Avoidance Index: Uncertainty Avoidance Index

  17. Elements of Culture: Rituals, and Symbols • Rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are learned and repeated vary from country to country, e.g., extended lunch hours in Spain and Greece • Language as Symbols: the “languages” of time, space, things, friendships, and agreements • French attempting to preserve the purity of their language

  18. Elements of Culture: Rituals, and Symbols • In Canada, language has been the focus of political disputes including secession • Differences in language vocabulary varies widely • Aesthetics as Symbols: the arts, folklore, music, drama, and dance of a culture influences marketing

  19. Fractured Translations • English Translations made by Japanese firm that were added to labels to increase prestige for their products being sold in China Product Equivalent to Japanese Spam Toilet Paper Ready to Eat Pancakes Antifreeze Spray Pediatrician’s Slogan English Translation Liver Putty My Fanny Brand Strawberry Crap Dessert Hot Piss Brand Specialist in Deceased Children SOURCE: “Some Strawberry Crap Dessert, dear?” South China Morning Post, Dec 9,1996 p. 12.

  20. The western aversion to the number 13 or refusing to walk under a ladder Japanese concern about Year of the Fire Horse The Chinese practice of Feng Shui in designing buildings Elements of Culture: Beliefs and Thought Processes Beliefs, which stem from religious training, vary from culture to culture Examples: Thought processes also vary across cultures “Asian and Western” thinking Examples: In summary, marketers must consider larger cultural consequences of marketing actions

  21. Factual versus Interpretive Cultural Knowledge There are two kinds of knowledge about cultures both of which are necessary Interpretive knowledge is the ability to understand and appreciate the nuances of different cultural traits and patterns, e.g., the meaning of time, and attitudes toward people Factual knowledge is usually obvious and must be learned, e.g., different meanings of colors, and different tastes; it deals with a facts about a culture Interpretive knowledge requires a degree of insight It is dependent on past experience for interpretation It is prone to misinterpretation if one’s SRC is used

  22. International marketers should appreciate how cultures change and accept or reject new ideas How cultures change, e.g., war (changes in Japan after World War II) or by natural disaster Hofstede has shown that consumers’ acceptance of innovations varies across cultures – innovation was associated with higher individualism (IDV), and lower power distance (PDI) and uncertainty avoidance (UAI) International marketers should be aware the extent to which cultures borrow ideas and learn from other cultures Helps in the marketing of products from one culture to a different culture Cultural Change and Cultural Borrowing

  23. Whose English? • United States • Trunk • Hood • Convertible Top • Elevator • Toilet • Bathroom • Vacuum • United Kingdom • Boot • 2. Bonnet • Hood • 4. Lift • 5. W.C. • 6. Tub or Shower • 7. Hoover

  24. Working women in Masculine societies like Saudi Arabia Acceptance of genetically modified foods (or “Frankenfood”) in Europe Resistance to Change Although some cultures embrace change, others are resistant to it Examples of cultures that resist change:

  25. Cultures that are resistant to change represent a major hurdle in marketing products Cultural change can be accomplished by: First, determine which cultural factors conflict with an innovation, thus creating resistance to its acceptance Second, change those factors from obstacles to acceptance into stimulants for change Third, marketers can cause change by introducing an idea or product and deliberately setting about to overcome resistance and to cause change that accelerates the rate of acceptance Firms can use a strategy of planned change by deliberately changing those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals, e.g., introducing western foods and baseball into Japan Planned and Unplanned Cultural Change