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Gross Anatomy

Gross Anatomy

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Gross Anatomy

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  1. Gross Anatomy Skull and brain 1/21/10

  2. Identify the Bone Frontal Bone Temporal Bone Zygomatic Bone Maxilla Mandible

  3. Identify the Landmark Supraorbital Notch (Foramen) Infraorbital Foramen Mental Foramen

  4. Identify the Bone Frontal Parietal Temporal Sphenoid Zygomatic Occipital Maxilla Mandible

  5. “PEST OF 6” • Parietal • Ethmoid • Sphenoid • Temporal • Occipital • Frontal

  6. Identify the Landmark Temporal Process (Zygomatic Bone) Zygomatic Process (Temporal Bone) Condylar Process (Mandible) External Auditory Meatus Coronoid Process (Mandible) External Occipital Protuberance Ramus of the Mandible Mental Foramen Styloid Process Mastoid Process

  7. Identify the Bone Frontal Bone Ethmoid Bone Sphenoid Bone Temporal Bone Occipital Bone

  8. Identify the Landmark Crista Galli Optic Canal Lesser Wing of the Sphenoid Cribiform plate Foramen Ovale Greater Wing of the Sphenoid Foramen Spinosum Foramen Lacerum Carotid Canal Jugular Foramen Foramen Magnum Hypoglossal Canal

  9. More Foramina(and what runs through them) Optic Canal • Optic Nerve (II) • Ophthalmic artery Foramen Ovale • Mandibular Nerve (V3) • Accessory meningeal artery Foramen Spinosum • Middle meningeal artery Carotid Canal • Internal carotid artery • Internal carotid nerve plexus Jugular Foramen • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX) • Vagus Nerve (X) • Accessory Nerve (XI) • Sigmoid sinus • Posterior Meningeal Artery Hypoglossal Canal • Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

  10. Things we didn’t see yet… • Superior Orbital Fissure • Oculumotor nerve (III), Trochlear nerve (IV), Ophthalmic nerve (V1), Abducens nerve (VI), Superior ophthalmic vein • Foramen Rotundum • Maxillary nerve (V2) • Internal Auditory Meatus • Facial nerve (VII), Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), Labyrinthine artery SOF FR IAM

  11. OVALE: • Otic ganglion (just inferior) • V3 cranial nerve • Accessory meningeal artery • Lesser petrosal nerve • Emissary veins

  12. Identify the Structure Corpus Callosum Fornix CingulateGyrus Central Sulcus Parieto-Occipital Sulcus Septum Pellucidum Anterior Commisure

  13. Identify the Structure Corpus Callosum Fornix CingulateGyrus Central Sulcus Parieto-Occipital Sulcus Pineal Body Septum Pellucidum Massa Intermedia Anterior Commisure Fourth Ventricle Mammillary Body Hypophysial Stalk

  14. Identify the Structure Primary Fissure Tonsil Nodule

  15. Cranial nerves Olfactory (I) Optic (II) Oculomotor (III) Trochlear (IV) Trigeminal (V) Abducens (VI) Facial (VII) Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Glossopharyngeal (IX) Vagus (X) Hypoglossal (XII) Accessory (XI)

  16. Mnemotechnics on cranial nerves • "On Old Olympus Towering Tops, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops": From I to XII: • Olfactory • Optic • Occulomotor • Trochlear • Trigeminal • Abducens • Facial • Auditory [or Vestibulocochlear] • Glossopharyngeal • Vagus • Accessory [or Spinal root of the accessory] • Hypoglossal • Alternatively:"Oh! Oh! Oh! To Touch And Feel A Girls Vagina, Ah! Heaven!". • Alternatively: "Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Virgin Girls Vaginas And Hymens". • Make some new (that will be more stable in your own mental environment)!

  17. Again! Olfactory (I) Optic (II) Oculomotor (III) Trochlear (IV) Abducens (VI) Trigeminal (V) Facial (VII) Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Glossopharyngeal (IX) & Vagus (X) Hypoglossal (XII)

  18. Cranial nerves: sensory, motor or both • "Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More" • From I to XII: • Sensory • Sensory • Motor • Motor • Both • Motor • Both • Sensory • Both • Both • Motor • Motor

  19. Name the Function! Olfactory (I)- smell Optic (II)- sight Oculomotor (III)- eyelid & eyeball movement Trochlear (IV)- turns eye down/out (sup. obl.) Trigeminal (V)- chewing, face touch and pain Abducens (VI)- turns eye laterally (lat. rectus) Facial (VII)- controls most facial expressions, tears and saliva, taste (ant. 2/3) Vestibulocochlear (VIII)- hearing, equilibrium Glossopharyngeal (IX)- taste (post. 1/3), senses carotid BP Vagus (X)- senses aortic BP, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs taste Hypoglossal (XII)- controls tongue movement

  20. Cavernous sinus content • O TOM CAT: • O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior. • CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O TOM. • See diagram. • Occulomotor nerve (III) • Trochlear nerve (IV) • Ophthalmic nerve (V1) • Maxillary nerve (V2) • Carotid artery • Abducent nerve (VI) • T: When written, connects to the T of OTOM

  21. Name the Function! Accessory (XI)- controls trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

  22. Question • Which structure carries fibers with motor and sensory information from the cortex? A. B. C. B A C

  23. Answer • Which structure carries fibers with motor and sensory information from the cortex? A. B. C. B A C

  24. Question • During a rare and complicated surgery, a doctor accidentally drops a jelly bean into the patient’s skull, where it becomes lodged in the marked structure. Which of the following symptoms will the patient display? A. Difficulty swallowing B. Difficulty chewing C. Drifting of eyes inward D. Partial loss of vision E. Diarrhea

  25. Answer • During a rare and complicated surgery, a doctor accidentally drops a jelly bean into the patient’s skull, where it becomes lodged in the marked structure. Which of the following symptoms will the patient display? A. Difficulty swallowing B. Difficulty chewing C. Drifting of eyes inward D. Partial loss of vision E. Diarrhea

  26. Question • During another procedure, the same careless doctor accidentally transects the nerve running through the marked hole. Which of the following symptoms will the patient display? A. Partial loss of taste sensation B. Tongue deviates left C. Tongue deviates right D. Left shoulder drop E. Right shoulder drop F. Diarrhea

  27. Answer • During another procedure, the same careless doctor accidentally transects the nerve running through the marked hole. Which of the following symptoms will the patient display? A. Partial loss of taste sensation B. Tongue deviates left C. Tongue deviates right D. Left shoulder drop E. Right shoulder drop F. Diarrhea

  28. Question • During a routine chin lift, Dr. 90210 accidentally transects the marked nerve. What symptom will his droopy-chinned patient have? A. Difficulty chewing B. Difficulty swallowing C. Tongue deviation D. Shoulder weakness E. Diarrhea

  29. Answer • During a routine chin lift, Dr. 90210 accidentally transects the marked nerve. What symptom will his droopy-chinned patient have? A. Difficulty chewing B. Difficulty swallowing C. Tongue deviation D. Shoulder weakness E. Diarrhea

  30. Question • Dr. Garner needs a picture in order to illustrate a nerve lesion during her lecture. She finds a student asleep and severs the indicated nerve. What sign did she need to take a picture of? A. Right-sided medial eye deviation B. Left-sided medial eye deviation C. Right-sided drooping eyelid D. Left-sided drooping eyelid E. Lower face paralysis

  31. Answer • Dr. Garner needs a picture in order to illustrate a nerve lesion during her lecture. She finds a student asleep and severs the indicated nerve. What sign did she need to take a picture of? A. Right-sided medial eye deviation B. Left-sided medial eye deviation C. Right-sided drooping eyelid D. Left-sided drooping eyelid E. Lower face paralysis

  32. Question • What is the gross brain structure indicated by the arrow? A. Caudate nucleus B. Globus Pallidus C. Hippocampus D. Putamen E. Thalamus

  33. Answer • What is the gross brain structure indicated by the arrow? A. Caudate nucleus B. Globus Pallidus C. Hippocampus D. Putamen E. Thalamus

  34. Question • From whence do most of the neurons in the marked structure come? A. Left red nucleus B. Right red nucleus C. Left pontine nuclei D. Right pontine nuclei E. Left lower limb F. Right lower limb G. Left fastigial nucleus H. Right fastigial nucleus

  35. Answer • From whence do most of the neurons in the marked structure come? A. Left red nucleus B. Right red nucleus C. Left pontine nuclei D. Right pontine nuclei E. Left lower limb F. Right lower limb G. Left fastigial nucleus H. Right fastigial nucleus

  36. Question • Which lobe of the cerebrum sits in the region of the skull shown? A. Frontal B. Parietal C. Temporal D. Occipital

  37. Answer • Which lobe of the cerebrum sits in the region of the skull shown? A. Frontal B. Parietal C. Temporal D. Occipital