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Modeling of the Problem Solving Process

Modeling of the Problem Solving Process

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Modeling of the Problem Solving Process

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  1. CS 785, Fall 2001 Modeling of the Problem Solving Process (Part 1 of 2) Gheorghe Tecuci tecuci@gmu.eduhttp://lalab.gmu.edu/ Learning Agents LaboratoryDepartment of Computer Science George Mason University

  2. Overview Modeling based on the task reduction paradigm Planning through task reduction: The workaround planning agent Critiquing through task reduction:The course of action critiquing agent Identification through task reduction:The center of gravity identification agent Guidelines for the modeling process

  3. Modeling based on the task reduction paradigm Definition of modeling The general task reduction paradigm Question-answering based task reduction Expertise tasks and task reduction

  4. Definition of modeling Modeling the problem solving process of a subject matter expert means making explicit the way the expert solves problems. It consists of expressing informally, in English, a problem to be solved, all the intermediary reasoning steps, and the final solution. Modeling is generally the most difficult part of knowledge base and agent development. The modeling is performed by the Knowledge Engineer and the Subject Matter Expert, and is based on some general problem solving paradigm, such as task reduction, state space search, or generate and test.

  5. The general task reduction paradigm • A complex problem solving task is performed by: • successively reducing it to simpler tasks; • finding the solutionsof the simplest tasks; • successively composing these solutions until the solution to the initial task is obtained. T1 S1 … T11 S11 T1n S1n … S111 T111 T11m S11m

  6. Question-answering based task reduction Let T1 be the problem solving task to be performed. Finding a solution is an iterative process where, at each step, we consider some relevant information that leads us to reduce the current task to a simpler task or to several simpler tasks. The question Q associated with the current task identifies the type of information to be considered. The answer A identifies that piece of information and leads us to the reduction of the current task. T1 S1 Q1 … S11 A1n A11 S1n T1n T11a S11a T11b S11b … Q11b S11b … S11bm S11b1 A11bm A11b1 … T11b1 T11bm

  7. Expertise tasks and task reduction These are some of the classes of problem solving tasks that have been defined before: Planning Monitoring Prediction Control Critiquing Diagnosis Repair Debugging Interpretation Identification Design Instruction An important characteristic of each task class is that its problem solving tasks can be modeled in a similar way. For example, if we know how to model a specific critiquing task using the task reduction paradigm, than another critiquing task could, in principle, be modeled in a similar way. We will study in more detail the modeling of the following types of tasks: planning, critiquing and identification.

  8. Planning through task reduction Planning as an expertise task The workaround challenge problem The workaround planning agent Modeling the planning process Demonstration of the Disciple-Workaround agent

  9. Planning as an expertise task Planning means developing a sequence of actions that achieve a desired goal. Examples: Develop a plan for a military unit to reconstitute or bypass damage to an infrastructure, such as a damaged bridge, tunnel or road. Develop a plan of how to manufacture a loudspeaker. Develop a plan of how to travel from one location to another.

  10. Workaround generation: HPKB challenge problem Estimates enemy’s best way of working around a damage to an infrastructure, such as a damaged bridge or a cratered road. Supports air campaign planning by JFACC and staff: - facilitates evaluation of targeting strategies aimed at disabling enemy infrastructure systems; - provides information about enemy assets that should be preemptively targeted to impede its efforts to work around battle damage.

  11. The workaround planning agent: input The input to the agent includes: - a description of the damage (e.g. a span of the bridge is dropped and the area is mined), and of the terrain (e.g. the soil type, the slopes of the river's banks, the river's speed, depth and width), - a detailed description of the resources in the area that could be used to repair the damage. This includes a description of the engineering assets of the military unit that has to workaround the damage, as well as the descriptions of other military units in the area that could provide additional resources.

  12. The workaround planning agent: output • The output of the agent consists of the most likely repair strategies, each described in terms of three elements: • - a reconstitution schedule, giving the transportation capacity of the damaged link (bridge, road or tunnel), as a function of time, including both a minimum time and an expected time; • a partially ordered plan of engineering actions to perform the repair, and the minimum as well as the expected time that each of these actions require; and • a set of required resources for the entire plan and for each action.

  13. Modeling the planning process Sample workaround problem: mined bridge Modeling the process of working around the mined bridge Another workaround problem: gap in bridge Modeling the process of working around the destroyed bridge A more complex workaround problem

  14. Sample Workaround Problem:Mined Bridge

  15. General statement of the input problem Training problem 1 is a 30m bridge (site100). The bridge is mined (damage200) with surface scatterable mines, as is thenear approach (site108, damage205), near bank (site107, damage204), riverbed (site106, damage203), far bank (site105, damage202), and far approach (site104, damage201). The river bed is only 14 meters wide but both the near bank and far bank are too steep (max-slope 100) to be trafficable. Both banks are 9 m high. The interdicted unit is the Red 101st Armor Battalion (Unit10) which is located on the near approach (site108) to the bridge. Red 101st Armor Battalion has blade equipped tanks (M60A1-TankBlade), and mine-plow equipped tanks (M60A1-MinePlow). The interdicted unit has operational control of a Combat Engineer Company (unit202) which is also located on the near approach. The equipment of the Engineer Company includes an AVLB, small boats (three-person-boat, eight-person-boat), explosives (bangalore, MICLIC), and rubble clearing equipment (CEV). The nearest earth moving equipment (bulldozer) is assigned to the Headquarters Company (Unit201) of the Division (Unit 910) Engineer Battalion (Unit20). The Division, Division Engineer Battalion and the Engineer Battalion Headquarters Company are all located at Town1 (site0) which is 70 km away from the damaged bridge. Corps Headquarters (Unit 91) is located at Town1. The Corps has three assigned bridge companies; a MGB Company (Unit910201), a M4T6 Bridge Company (Unit910202) and a Ribbon Bridge Company (Unit910203), which are all located at Town1. The MGB Company is equipped with MGB sets and a bulldozer. The M4T6 Company is equipped with M4T6 sets and a bulldozer. The Ribbon Company is equipped with ribbon bridge elements (RBBay,BEB,RBRamp) and a bulldozer.

  16. General sketch Site 0: Town1 LAT 27.18 LONG 56.25 Unit 91 Site 0 Red Corps Unit 910 Site 0 Red Division Unit 910202 Site 0 Unit 910201 Site 0 Unit 910203 Site 0 Unit 0 Site 0 Red Eng Bn Unit 9100 Site 0 Red Brigade Unit 204 Site 0 Unit 200 Site 0 Unit 203 Site 0 Unit 201 Site 0 Distance Site0 to Site100 = 70 km Site 100: Bridge area Damage 200: damaged bridge LAT 27.18 LONG 55.6 Unit 10 Site 108 Red Armor Bn Site 104 : Far approach Site 108: Near approach Unit 202 Site 108 Red Eng Co Unit 100,101,102,103 Site 108 Red Armor Co

  17. Detailed sketchDamage Bridge at Site 100 Site 103:Cross-Section Damage 200: Mined Bridge Type: Scatterable Length: 30 m Density: 0.006 mines/m^3 Site 108: Near Approach (Left Approach) Damage 205: Mined Type: Scatterable Length: 400 m Density: 0.006 mines/m^3 Site 104: Far Approach (Right Approach) Damage 201: Mined Type: Scatterable Length: 200 m Density: 0.006 mines/m^3 Bridge/River Width: 30 m Site 107: Left Bank Height: 9 m Max Slope: 100 Soil Type: Rock Vegetation: Desert Scrub Water Depth: 1.0 m Damage 204: Mined Type: Scatterable Length: 9 m Density: 0.006 mines/m^3 Site 105: Right Bank Height: 9 m Max Slope: 100 Soil Type: Rock Vegetation: Desert Scrub Water Depth: 1.0 m Damage 202: Mined Type: Scatterable Length: 9 m Density: 0.006 mines/m^3 Site 106: River Bed Soil Type: Sand Wetness: Wet Min Water Depth: 1.0 m Max Water Depth: 2.0 m Water Width: 14 m Max Current: 1.5 m/s Damage 203: Mined Type: Scatterable Length: 12 m Density: 0.006 mines/m^3

  18. Engineer and Related Order of Battle xxx Unit 91 Red Corps Unit 910201: Red MGB Bridge Co OPCOM to Unit 91 LightWheeled-veh: 6 HeavyWheeled-veh:36 bulldozer:1 loader:1 crane:1 MGB-sets:4 Unit 910202: Red M4T6 Bridge Co Red M4T6 Bridge Co OPCOM to Unit 91 LightWheeled-veh: 10 HeavyWheeled-veh:68 bulldozer:1 crane:1 M4T6sets:6 Unit 910203: Red Ribbon Bridge Co OPCOM to Unit 91 LightWheeled-veh: 9 HeavyWheeled-veh:70 bulldozer:1 crane:1 RBBay:30 BEB:14 RBRamp:12 xx Unit 910 Red Division OPCOM to Unit 91 II Unit 20 Red Engineer Bn OPCOM to Unit 910 I I I Unit 201: Red Eng Co HQ Support OPCOM to Unit 20 M113:5 M88:2 LightWheeled-veh :7 HeavyWheeled-veh:18 bulldozer:6 Unit 203: Red Eng Co “B” OPCOM to Unit 20 M113:14 LightWheeled-veh:6 HeavyWheeled-veh:8 three-person-boat:3 eight-person-boat:6 bangalore:4 MICLIC:4 CEV:2 AVLB:4 Unit 204: Red Eng Co “C” OPCOM to Unit 20 M113:14 LightWheeled-veh:6 HeavyWheeled-veh:8 three-person-boat:3 eight-person-boat:6 bangalore:4 MICLIC:4 CEV:2 AVLB:4 Unit 9100 Red Brigade OPCOM to Unit 910 x I Unit 200: Red Eng Bn HQ Organic to Unit 201 M113:5 LightWheeled-veh :11 HeavyWheeled-veh :1 bulldozer:6 Unit 10 Red Armor Bn OPCOM to Unit 9100 II I I I I Unit 202: Red Eng Co “A” OPCOM to Unit 20 Attached to Unit 10 M113:14 LightWheeled-veh:6 HeavyWheeled-veh:8 three-person-boat:3 eight-person-boat:6 bangalore:4 MICLIC:4 CEV:2 AVLB:4 Unit 102: Red Armor Co “B” OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:13 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:1 HeavyWheeled-veh:2 M60A1-MinePlow:3 M60A1-TankBlade:1 Unit 101: Red Armor Co “A” OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:13 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:1 HeavyWheeled-veh:2 M60A1-MinePlow:3 M60A1-TankBlade:1 Unit 103: Red Armor Co “C” OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:13 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:1 HeavyWheeled-veh:2 M60A1-MinePlow:3 M60A1-TankBlade:1 Unit 100: Red Armor Bn HQ OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:1 M113:2 LightWheeled-veh:6 I I I I Unit 1000: Support Platoon OPCOM to Unit 100 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:2 HeavyWheeled-veh:18 Unit 1001: Recon Platoon OPCOM to Unit 100 LightWheeled-veh:6 Bangalore:8 Explosives:8 Unit 1003: Medical Section OPCOM to Unit 100 LightWheeled:5 Unit 1002: HeavyMortar Platoon OPCOM to Unit 100 M113:6

  19. Sample workaround solution (plan) Report-bridge-cleared-of-mines for-bridge site100 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach-and-bank for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration 1 hour 20 min expected-duration same as minimum Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach-and-bank for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 40 min expected-duration same as minimum Remove-mines-on-near-approach-and-bank-using-mine-plow for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration 25 min expected-duration 50 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101 Remove-mines-on-far-approach-and-bank-using-mine-plow for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 15 min expected-duration 30 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101 Report-near-approach-and-bank-cleared-of-mines for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Report-far-approach-and-bank-cleared-of-mines for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Remove-mines-on-bridge-using-mine-plow for-bridge site100 min-duration 10 min expected-duration 20 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101 Restore-traffic-link-to-original-capacity for-unit unit10 for-link site100 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min

  20. Modeling the process of working around the mined bridge

  21. 1 Formulate a general actionthat accomplishes the goal. Workaround-obstacle by-unit unit10 tunnel What is the type of obstacle? 1 crater Reduce a task to a simpler task Bridge because unit10, the interdicted unit, is located at the approach of site100 which is a bridge. Assumption: The interdicted unit is located at a site which is the approach of the obstacle which, in this case, is a bridge. Workaround-bridge-obstacle at-location site100 by-unit unit10 1 What type of workaround strategy to adopt? Assumption: if a bridge is mined than the bed of the corresponding cross-section is mined. repair ford Workaround-bridge-obstacle-by-repair at-location site100 by-unit unit10

  22. 2 Non-elementary task Workaround-bridge-obstacle-by-repair at-location site100 by-unit unit10 Reduce a task to two simpler sub-tasks 1 How to workaround the bridge by repair? Elementary task Repair the bridge and restore the traffic link. Restore-traffic-link-to-original-capacity for-unit unit10 for-link site100 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Repair-bridge at-location site100 by-unit unit10 1 What is the type of damage to the bridge? Mined and damaged bridge Only mines Damaged bridge but no mines Workaround-bridge-with-mines at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 by-unit unit10 3

  23. Workaround-bridge-with-mines at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 by-unit unit10 3 1 Are both sides of the bridge mined? Yes, both sides are mined. No, only near side No, only far side Breach-minefields-on-both-sides-of-the-mined-bridge at-location site100 for-right-approach site104 for-left-approach site108 by-unit unit10 1 What de-mining techniques will be used? explosives Vehicle mounted equipment. Breach-minefields-on-both-sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-vehicle-mounted-eq at-location site100 for-right-approach site104 for-left-approach site108 by-unit unit10 4

  24. 4 Breach-minefields-on-both-sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-vehicle-mounted-eq at-location site100 for-right-approach site104 for-left-approach site108 by-unit unit10 1 Is vehicle mounted equipment available in the unit? Yes, Tank-with-plow-Unit101 Breach-minefields-on-both sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-own-vehicle-mounted-eq at-location site100 for-right-approach site104 for-left-approach site108 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 5

  25. Breach-minefields-on-both sides-of-the-mined-bridge-with-own-vehicle-mounted-eq at-location site100 for-right-approach site104 for-left-approach site108 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 5 How to perform this breaching? 1 By breaching the near approach, then the bridge and then the far approach. Breach-minefields-on-near approach and bank-with-vehicle-mounted-eq for-approach site108 for-bank site107 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 6 Report-near approach and bank cleared of mines for-approach site108 for-bank site107 Remove-mines-on-bridge-using-mine-plow-p at-location site100 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 9 Report-bridge-cleared-of-mines for-bridge site100 Breach-minefields-on-far-approach-and-bank vehicle-mounted-eq for-approach site104 for-bank site105 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 10 Report-far approach and bank cleared of mines for-approach site104 for-bank site105

  26. 6 Breach-minefields-on-near approach and bank-with-vehicle-mounted-eq for-approach site108 for-bank site107 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 Is mine clearing equipment mounted and ready for use? 1 No, mine clearing equipment must be mounted. Yes, Tank-with-plow-Unit 101 is ready. Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank-p for-approach site108 for-bank site107 7 Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow-p for-approach site108 for-bank site107 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 8

  27. 7 Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank-p for-approach site108 for-bank site107 1 What is the width of the minefield and what is the hasty mine recon and marking rate? The width of the minefield is 400m and the rate of clearing with 2 teams working is (400m/2)/2.5m/min Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration 1 hour 20 min = (400m/2 / 2.5m/min) expected-duration same as minimum

  28. 8 Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow-p for-approach site108 for-bank site107 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 1 What is the depth of the minefield and what is the mineplow clearing rate? The length of the minefield is 400m, the minimum rate of mineplow clearing is 0.05min/m and the expected rate is 0.1min/m Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration (400 m * 0.05min/m + 5 min) = 25 min expected-duration (400 m * 0.1min/m +10 min) = 50 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

  29. 9 Remove-mines-on-bridge-using-mine-plow-p at-location site100 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 1 What is the depth of the minefield and what is the mineplow clearing rate? The min bridge minefield width is 100m, the minimum rate of mine plow clearing is 0.05min/m and the expected rate is 0.1min/m add 5 min min prep time and 10 min expected prep time Remove-mines-on-bridge- using mine plow for-bridge site100 min-duration (100 m * 0.05min/m) + 5 min prep = 10 min expected-duration (100 m * 0.1min/m) + 10 exp prep = 20 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

  30. 10 Breach-minefields-on-far approach and bank-with-vehicle-mounted-eq for-approach site104 for-bank site105 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 7 How to breach the minefield on the far approach? By first identifying and marking the mines and then removing them. Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank-p for-approach site104 for-bank site105 11 Remove-mines-on-far-approach and bank using mine plow-p for-approach site104 for-bank site105 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 12

  31. 11 Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank-p for-approach site104 for-bank site105 1 What is the width of the minefield and what is the hasty mine recon and marking rate? The width of the minefield is 200m and the rate of clearing with 2 teams working is (200 m/2)/2.5m/min Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 40 min = ((200 m/2)/2.5m/min) expected-duration same as minimum

  32. 12 Remove-mines-on-far-approach and bank using mine plow-p for-approach site108 for-bank site107 with-mounted-vehicle-lane-clearing-eq-set Tank-with-plow-Unit101 by-unit unit10 1 What is the depth of the minefield and what is the mineplow clearing rate? The depth of the minefield is 250m, the minimum rate of mineplow clearing is 0.05min/m and the expected rate is 0.1min/m Remove-mines-on-far-approach and bank using mine plow for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration (200 m * 0.05min/m) +5min= 15 min expected-duration (200 m * 0.1min/m) +10min= 30 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101

  33. The developed plan Report-bridge-cleared-of-mines for-bridge site100 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-near-approach and bank for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration 1 hour 20 min = (400m/2 / 2.5m/min) expected-duration same as minimum Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 40 min = ((200 m/2)/2.5m/min) expected-duration same as minimum Remove-mines-on-near-approach and bank using mine plow for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration (400 m * 0.05min/m + 5 min) = 25 min expected-duration (400 m * 0.1min/m +10 min) = 50 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101 Identify-and-mark-extent-of-minefield-on-far-approach and bank for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 40 min = ((200 m/2)/2.5m/min) expected-duration same as minimum Report-near approach and bank cleared of mines for-approach site108 for-bank site107 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Report-far approach and bank cleared of mines for-approach site104 for-bank site105 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min Remove-mines-on-bridge- using mine plow for-bridge site100 min-duration (100 m * 0.05min/m) + 5 min prep = 10 min expected-duration (100 m * 0.1min/m) + 10 exp prep = 20 min resources Tank-with-plow-Unit101 Restore-traffic-link-to-original-capacity for-unit unit10 for-link site100 min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min

  34. Another Workaround Problem:Gap in Bridge

  35. General statement of the input problem Training problem 2 is a 60m bridge (site100) with a 10m span destroyed (damage-200) and no mines. The river bed (site106) is 50 meters wide and both the near bank (site107) and far bank (site105) are too steep (max-slope 200) to be trafficable. The near approach (site108), near bank, riverbed, far bank, and far approach (site104), are all undamaged. Both banks are 5 m high. The interdicted unit is the Red 101st Armor Battalion (Unit10) which is located on the near approach (site108) to the bridge. Red 101st Armor Battalion has blade equipped tanks (M60A1-TankBlade), and mine-plow equipped tanks (M60A1-MinePlow). The interdicted unit has operational control of a Combat Engineer Company (unit202) which is also located on the near approach. The equipment of the Engineer Company includes an AVLB, small boats (three-person-boat, eight-person-boat), explosives (bangalore, MICLIC), and rubble clearing equipment (CEV). The nearest earth moving equipment (bulldozer) is assigned to the Headquarters Company (Unit201) of the Division (Unit 910) Engineer Battalion (Unit20). The Division, Division Engineer Battalion and the Engineer Battalion Headquarters Company are all located at Town1 (site0) which is 70 km away from the damaged bridge. Corps Headquarters (Unit 91) is located at Town1. The Corps has three assigned bridge companies; a MGB Company (Unit910201), a M4T6 Bridge Company (Unit910202) and a Ribbon Bridge Company (Unit910203), which are all located at Town1. The MGB Company is equipped with MGB sets and a bulldozer. The M4T6 Company is equipped with M4T6 sets and a bulldozer. The Ribbon Company is equipped with ribbon bridge elements (RBBay,BEB,RBRamp) and a bulldozer.

  36. Site 0: Town 1 LAT 27.18 LONG 56.25 General sketch Unit 91 Site 0 Red Corps Unit 910 Site 0 Red Division Unit 910202 Site 0 Unit 910201 Site 0 Unit 910203 Site 0 Unit 0 Site 0 Red Eng Bn Unit 9100 Site 0 Red Brigade Unit 204 Site 0 Unit 200 Site 0 Unit 203 Site 0 Unit 201 Site 0 Distance Site0 to Site100 = 70 km Site 100: Bridge area Damage 200: damaged bridge LAT 27.18 LONG 55.6 Unit 10 Site 108 Red Armor Bn Site 104 : Far approach Site 108: Near approach Unit 202 Site 108 Red Eng Co Unit 100,101,102,103 Site 108 Red Armor Co

  37. Detailed sketchDamage Bridge at Site 100 Site 103:Cross-Section Damage 200: Damaged Bridge Gap Length: 10 m Bridge/River Width: 60 m Site 108: Near Approach (Left Approach) Site 104: Far Approach (Right Approach) Site 107: Left Bank Height: 5 m Max Slope: 200 Soil Type: Rock Vegetation: Desert Scrub Water Depth: 0.0 m Site 105: Right Bank Height: 5 m Max Slope: 200 Soil Type: Rock Vegetation: Desert Scrub Water Depth: 0.0 m Site 106: River Bed Soil Type: Gravel Wetness: Wet Min Water Depth: 0.5 m Max Water Depth: 2.0 m Water Width: 50 m Max Current: 0.6 m/s

  38. Engineer and Related Order of Battle xxx Unit 91 Red Corps Unit 910201: Red MGB Bridge Co OPCOM to Unit 91 LightWheeled-veh: 6 HeavyWheeled-veh:36 bulldozer:1 loader:1 crane:1 MGB-sets:4 Unit 910202: Red M4T6 Bridge Co Red M4T6 Bridge Co OPCOM to Unit 91 LightWheeled-veh: 10 HeavyWheeled-veh:68 bulldozer:1 crane:1 M4T6sets:6 Unit 910203: Red Ribbon Bridge Co OPCOM to Unit 91 LightWheeled-veh: 9 HeavyWheeled-veh:70 bulldozer:1 crane:1 RBBay:30 BEB:14 RBRamp:12 xx Unit 910 Red Division OPCOM to Unit 91 II Unit 20 Red Engineer Bn OPCOM to Unit 910 I I I Unit 201: Red Eng Co HQ Support OPCOM to Unit 20 M113:5 M88:2 LightWheeled-veh :7 HeavyWheeled-veh:18 bulldozer:6 Unit 203: Red Eng Co “B” OPCOM to Unit 20 M113:14 LightWheeled-veh:6 HeavyWheeled-veh:8 three-person-boat:3 eight-person-boat:6 bangalore:4 MICLIC:4 CEV:2 AVLB:4 Unit 204: Red Eng Co “C” OPCOM to Unit 20 M113:14 LightWheeled-veh:6 HeavyWheeled-veh:8 three-person-boat:3 eight-person-boat:6 bangalore:4 MICLIC:4 CEV:2 AVLB:4 Unit 9100 Red Brigade OPCOM to Unit 910 x I Unit 200: Red Eng Bn HQ Organic to Unit 201 M113:5 LightWheeled-veh :11 HeavyWheeled-veh :1 bulldozer:6 Unit 10 Red Armor Bn OPCOM to Unit 9100 II I I I I Unit 202: Red Eng Co “A” OPCOM to Unit 20 Attached to Unit 10 M113:14 LightWheeled-veh:6 HeavyWheeled-veh:8 three-person-boat:3 eight-person-boat:6 bangalore:4 MICLIC:4 CEV:2 AVLB:4 Unit 102: Red Armor Co “B” OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:13 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:1 HeavyWheeled-veh:2 MinePlow:3 TankBlade:1 Unit 101: Red Armor Co “A” OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:13 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:1 HeavyWheeled-veh:2 MinePlow:3 TankBlade:1 Unit 103: Red Armor Co “C” OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:13 M113:2 M88:1 LightWheeled-veh:1 HeavyWheeled-veh:2 MinePlow:3 TankBlade:1 Unit 100: Red Armor Bn HQ OPCOM to Unit 10 M60A1:1 M113:2 LightWheeled-veh:6 I I I I I Unit 1001: Recon Platoon OPCOM to Unit 100 LightWheeled-veh:6 Bangalore:8 Explosives:8 Unit 1003: Medical Section OPCOM to Unit 100 LightWheeled:5 Unit 1002: HeavyMortar Platoon OPCOM to Unit 100 M113:6

  39. Modeling the process of working around the destroyed bridge

  40. Formulate a general action that accomplishes the goal 1 Workaround-obstacle by-unit unit10 What is the type of obstacle? crater tunnel 2 Bridge because unit10, the interdicted unit, is located at the approach of site100 which is a bridge. Workaround-bridge-obstacle at-location site100 by-unit unit10 Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action What type of workaround strategy to adopt? 2 repair ford Workaround-bridge-obstacle-by-repair at-location site100 by-unit unit10 Ford-near-damaged-bridge at-location site100 by-unit unit10 What is the type of damage to the bridge? 2 Mined and damaged bridge Only mines Damaged bridge but no mines Workaround-damaged-bridge-by-repair at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 by-unit unit10 2

  41. 2 Workaround-damaged-bridge-by-repair at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 by-unit unit10 2 What is the type of bridge damage? destroyed reduced class bridge gap in bridge because the gap length is 10m which is less than the length of the bridge which is 60m Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action Workaround-gap-in-bridge-by-repair at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 What engineering solution should be attempted? 2 Military bridge over river gap Military bridge over bridge gap Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-military-bridge-over-bridge-gap at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-military-bridge-over-river-gap damaged-element damage200 by-unit unit10 3

  42. 3 2 Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-military-bridge-over-bridge-gap at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 What type of military bridge could be tried? 2 BAILEY-BRIDGE AVLB MGB Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-AVLB-over-bridge-gap at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 4

  43. 4 When the action to perform is completely defined, break it down into sub-actions 3 Workaround-gap-in-bridge-with-AVLB-over-bridge-gap at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 1 How to workaround gap-in-bridge-with-AVLB-over-bridge-gap? By placing an AVLB over the bridge gap and restoring the traffic link. Place-AVLB-over-bridge-gap at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 Restore-traffic-link-over-bridge-with-AVLB-over-gap for-unit unit10 for-link site100 8 5

  44. 4 Place-AVLB-over-bridge-gap at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m by-unit unit10 5 Does the unit have an appropriate AVLB and rubble clearing equipment? Yes, it has the bridge AVLB-unit202 that can span 17m>10m and the rubble clearing equipment M88-unit103 It does not have any of them 2 It only has the bridge AVLB It only has rubble clearing equipment Ask questions about the current situation to determine alternative ways of performing this action Place-AVLB-over-bridge-gap-using-own-bridge-and-rubble-clearing-equipment at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 for-gap-length 10m with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB-unit202 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88-unit103 by-unit unit10 2 What sides of the river are the bridge and rubble clearing equipment on? On the same side because they belong to the interdicted unit. Install-AVLB-over-bridge-gap-with-minor-preparations-and-equipment-on-same-river-side at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB-unit202 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88-unit103 by-unit unit10 6

  45. Install-AVLB-over-bridge-gap-with-minor-preparations-and-equipment-on-same-river-side at-location site100 for-damage-to-bridge damage200 with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB-unit202 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88-unit103 by-unit unit10 When the action to perform is completely defined, break it down into sub-actions 6 2 How to install the AVLB bridge? Prepare the near bank, emplace AVLB, move preparation equipment over the bridge and prepare the far bank. Take also into account that the place might have been mined and required de-mining. Minor-bank-preparation-p of-bank site107 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88 unit103 After Report-near-approach-and-bank-cleared-of-mines for-bank site107 Emplace-AVLB-p with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202 After First-minor-bank-preparation-p 7 Report-emplaced-fixed-bridge with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202 After Emplace-AVLB-p Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge-p for-eq-set M88 unit103 for-br-eq-set AVLB unit202 After Report-emplaced-fixed-bridge Minor-bank-preparation-p of-bank site105 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set M88 unit103 After Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge-p

  46. 8 Continue the reductions until the sub-actions are elementary actions 2 Restore-traffic-link-over-bridge-with-AVLB-over-gap for-unit unit10 for-link site100 2 What are the characteristics of bridge crossing? Risk crossing speed of 83.33m/min, default vehicle length of 7m, and space between vehicles of 30m Restore-traffic-link for-unit unit10 for-link site100 link-capacity 2.2521622 vehicles/min = (/ 83.33 (+ 30 7)) min-duration 0 expected-duration 0

  47. 7 Minor-bank-preparation-p of-bank site107 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set unit103 M88 After Report-approach-cleared-of-mines for-approach site107 What are the min and expected durations of the minor bank preparation, and the used resources? Continue the reductions until the sub-actions are elementary actions Min duration is 5 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is M88 of unit103. Minor-bank-preparation of-bank site107 min-duration 30 min expected-duration 50 min resources M88 unit103 Emplace-AVLB-p with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202 After First-minor-bank-preparation What are the min and expected durations of the AVLB emplacement, and the resource required? Min duration is 5 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is AVLB of unit202. Emplace-AVLB min-duration 5 min expected-duration 10 min resources AVLB unit202

  48. 7 Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge-p for-eq-set unit103 M88 for-br-eq-set unit202 AVLB After First-minor-bank-preparation 2 What are the min and expected durations of this operation, and the resources required? Continue the reductions until the sub-actions are elementary actions Min duration is 2 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is M88 of unit103 Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge for-eq-set M88 unit103 for-br-eq-set AVLB unit202 min-duration 2 min expected-duration 10 min resources M88 unit103 Minor-bank-preparation-p of-bank site105 with-rubble-clear-equipment-set unit103 M88 After Report-approach-cleared-of-mines for-approach site104 What are the min and expected durations of the minor bank preparation, and the used resources? Min duration is 5 min and expected duration is 10 min. The resource is M88 of unit103. Minor-bank-preparation of-bank site105 min-duration 30 min expected-duration 50 min resources M88 unit103

  49. Minor-bank-preparation of-bank site107 min-duration 30 min expected-duration 50 min resources M88 unit103 The developed plan Emplace-AVLB min-duration 5 min expected-duration 10 min resources AVLB unit202 Report-emplaced-fixed-bridge with-bridge-equipment-set AVLB unit202 After Emplace-AVLB-p Move-equipment-over-unstabilized-mil-bridge for-eq-set M88 unit103 for-br-eq-set AVLB unit202 min-duration 2 min expected-duration 10 min resources M88 unit103 Minor-bank-preparation of-bank site105 min-duration 30 min expected-duration 50 min resources M88 unit103 Restore-traffic-link for-unit unit10 for-link site100 link-capacity 2.2521622 vehicles/min min-duration 0 min expected-duration 0 min

  50. A more complex workaround problem Workaround solution for a destroyed bridge on larger river: Narrow gap and install AVLB Workaround summary Initial task:Engineering action: INSTALL AVLB WORKAROUND-DAMAGE MIN-DURATION 11H:4M:58S FOR-DAMAGE DAMAGE200 EXPECTED-DURATION 14H:25M:56S BY-INTERDICTED-UNIT UNIT91010 RESOURCES REQUIRED (AVLB-UNIT202 BULLDOZER-UNIT201) LINK CAPACITY AFTER RECONSTRUCTION 2.2521622 VEHIC/MIN