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Biology Review

Biology Review

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Biology Review

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  1. Biology Review

  2. Cell Structure and Function Review 1. Cell specialization means that cells in an organism are uniquely suited to • carry on reproduction. • respond to changing conditions. • react with the environment. • perform a specific function.

  3. Cell Structure and Function Review 2. Which organisms are composed of cells that do not contain nuclei? • eukaryotes • prokaryotes • animals • plants

  4. Cell Structure and Function Review 3. Which two organelles occur in plant cells but not animal cells? • nuclear envelopes and nuclei • cell membranes and chromosomes • cell walls and chloroplasts • ribosomes and chloroplasts

  5. Cell Structure and Function Review 4. Of the following, the term that includes all the others is • nucleolus. • nuclear envelope. • nucleus. • chromosome.

  6. Cell Structure and Function Review 5. If a more concentrated salt solution is on one side of a membrane and a less concentrated salt solution is on the other side, water molecules tend to pass through the membrane • from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution. • from the more concentrated to the less concentrated solution. • equally in both directions. • until the cell membrane is broken down.

  7. Cell Structure and Function Review 6. All of the following are types of tissues EXCEPT • muscle. • fat. • stomach. • blood.

  8. Cell Structure and Function Review 8. All cells contain a • cell wall. • cell membrane. • nucleus. • mitochondrion.

  9. Cell Structure and Function Review 9. Which of the following statements about the cell membrane is CORRECT? • It prevents the exit of all materials from the cell. • It has a rigid structure composed of cellulose. • It is a two-layered structure composed of lipids and proteins. • It is a fluid-filled organelle that surrounds the nucleolus.

  10. Photosynthesis Review 1. Chlorophyll is important in the • formation of carbon dioxide. • reactions of the Calvin cycle. • formation of ADP from NADP+. • absorption of light energy.

  11. Photosynthesis Review 2. The reactants of photosynthesis are • CO2 and H2O. • CO2 and H2. • C and O2. • C and H2.

  12. Photosynthesis Review 3. The major products of the light-dependent reactions are • ATP and NADPH. • oxygen and water. • carbon dioxide and water. • ATP and sugars.

  13. Photosynthesis Review 5. The release of energy in an organism depends on the conversion of • AMP to ADP. • ADP to ATP. • ATP to ADP. • ATP to AZP.

  14. Photosynthesis Review 6. All of the following are true about the thylakoid membrane EXCEPT that it • is the site of chlorophyll molecules. • contains photosystems I and II. • is the site of the Calvin cycle. • is composed of lipids and proteins.

  15. Photosynthesis Review 7. At the end of the electron transport chain in photosynthesis, high-energy electrons are passed to • NADPH. • NADP+. • ATP. • AMP.

  16. Photosynthesis Review 8. The synthesis and breakdown of ATP within the cells is controlled by • active transport. • the cell membrane. • the nucleus. • enzymes.

  17. Photosynthesis Review 10. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is used to make sugars in the • thylakoids. • Calvin cycle. • light-dependent reactions. • Electron transport chain.

  18. Respiration Review 1. In the Krebs cycle, • glucose is broken down into CO2 and H2O. • ATP is broken down into ADP and AMP. • CO2 is converted into pyruvic acid. • pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 and H2O.

  19. Respiration Review 2. Cellular respiration benefits organisms by • forming carbon dioxide. • breaking down glucose. • transferring energy to ATP. • consuming oxygen.

  20. Respiration Review 3. The most important product of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration is • ATP. • NADH. • ADP. • NAD+.

  21. Respiration Review 4. The first set of reactions in cellular respiration is • the Calvin cycle. • the Krebs cycle. • electron transport. • glycolysis.

  22. Respiration Review 5. Which compounds are produced by the two main types of fermentation? • NAD+ or ATP • alcohol or lactic acid • glucose or carbon dioxide • ADP or ATP

  23. Respiration Review 6. In cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is • carbon dioxide. • oxygen. • water. • ATP.

  24. Respiration Review 7. The energy that is released during cellular respiration is stored as • ATP and NADH. • ATP and NAD+. • ADP and NADH. • ADP and NAD+.

  25. Respiration Review 8. In glycolysis, each glucose molecule is broken down into • six molecules of carbon dioxide. • four molecules of ATP. • two molecules of pyruvic acid. • two molecules of ATP.

  26. Respiration Review 9. Each of the following processes releases energy from glucose EXCEPT • photosynthesis. • glycolysis. • cellular respiration. • fermentation.

  27. Cell Growth and Division Review 1. In the cell cycle, DNA replication occurs during the • S phase. • G1 phase. • G2 phase. • M phase.

  28. Cell Growth and Division Review 2. In mitosis, sister chromatids separate during • metaphase. • prophase. • anaphase. • telophase.

  29. Cell Growth and Division Review 5. Chromosomes are made up of • nuclear RNA. • DNA and protein. • protein. • DNA.

  30. Cell Growth and Division Review 6. At the end of mitosis, each daughter cell has • the same number and kinds of chromosomes as in the parent cell. • the same number but different kinds of chromosomes as in the parent cell. • twice the number of chromosomes as in the parent cell. • half the number of chromosomes as in the parent cell.

  31. Cell Growth and Division Review 7. In mitosis, each of the following is correct EXCEPT that the • spindle forms during telophase. • nucleolus disappears during prophase. • chromosomes line up across the equator during metaphase. • sister chromatids become separate chromosomes during anaphase.

  32. Cell Growth and Division Review 8. Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their • size. • weight. • mass. • growth.

  33. Cell Growth and Division Review 9. As a cell grows larger, its volume increases • at the same rate as its surface area. • more slowly than its surface area. • more quickly than its surface area. • with no relationship to surface area.

  34. Cell Growth and Division Review 10. The rate at which waste products are produced by a cell depends on its • weight. • mass. • volume. • surface area.

  35. Heredity Review 1. Offspring produced by crossing parents that have different characteristics are called • alleles. • F2. • homologs. • hybrids.

  36. Heredity Review 2. A Punnett square is used to determine the • result of meiosis I. • result of segregation. • probable outcome of a cross. • actual outcome of a cross.

  37. Heredity Review 3. The probability that an event will occur in a certain number of trials is calculated by dividing the number of times the event occurs by the • number of times the event is expected to occur. • number of times the event occurred previously. • number of times the event does not occur. • number of trials when the event could occur.

  38. Heredity Review 4. Meiosis produces • two genetically identical haploid cells. • four genetically identical haploid bodies. • four genetically different diploid cells. • four genetically different haploid cells.

  39. Heredity Review 5. What assorts independently during meiosis? • chromosomes • genes • alleles • phenotypes

  40. Heredity Review 6. If a hybrid has a phenotype that is midway between the phenotypes of its true-breeding parents, the trait being studied is probably controlled by • incompletely dominant alleles. • codominant alleles. • multiple alleles. • linked genes.

  41. Heredity Review 7. An important function of meiosis is to • increase the diploid chromosome number of a species. • maintain the diploid chromosome number of a species. • increase the number of dominant alleles. • increase the number of recessive alleles.

  42. Heredity Review 8. The genetic makeup of an individual is its • genotype. • phenotype. • F1. • F2.

  43. Heredity Review 9. In guinea pigs, black color is dominant. When two hybrid black guinea pigs are crossed, the probability of producing a white guinea pig is • 1/2. • 1/4. • 1/3. • 3/4.

  44. Heredity Review 10. The effects of a dominant allele are seen • only if both alleles are dominant. • only if the other allele is recessive. • regardless of the other allele. • only in female offspring.

  45. DNA Review 1. If one strand of DNA has the sequence of nitrogenous bases AACTG, its complementary strand has the sequence • TTGAC. • AACTG. • UUBAC. • AACUC.

  46. DNA Review 3. Transfer RNA is important in • synthesizing RNA codons. • assembling ribosomes. • transporting messenger RNA. • adding amino acids to a polypeptide.

  47. DNA Review 4. A frameshift mutation usually produces a • change in the structure of ribosomal RNA. • more drastic change than a point mutation. • change in the appearance of a chromosome. • new segment of DNA in several genes.

  48. DNA Review 5. The DNA that results from replication consists of • one molecule with two new strands and one molecule with the two original strands. • two molecules that each contain one new strand and one original strand. • two molecules composed of new strands. • two molecules composed of old strands.

  49. DNA Review 6. The information that directs protein synthesis is contained in DNA's • sugars. • phosphate groups. • nitrogenous bases. • enzymes.

  50. DNA Review 7. The Hershey-Chase experiments on bacteriophages showed that the genetic information is carried in • proteins. • bacteria. • DNA. • RNA.