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  1. Africa

  2. The Beginning Africa is one of the earth’s seven continents. It is the second largest continent. Africa is a land of great beauty and resources. The earliest evidence of human beings comes from Africa. Many great cultures developed here.

  3. Geography of Africa Why is geography important? The physical geography of different regions helped to determine the growth of human societies, as well as the culture of the area.

  4. The SavannaGrasslands Savanna comes from the Spanish word for “treeless plain”. There is low rainfall but enough to make farming possible.

  5. Animals of the SavannaMany grazing animals due to the large amount of vegetation. There are also many predators of the grazers like the cheetah.

  6. The Desert The desert is characterized by high temperatures and little rainfall that make farming extremely difficult. The Sahara Desert in the North and the Kalahari Desert in the South are barren and desolate.

  7. Meerkats and a camel. African Lynx

  8. The Rainforest Rainforests are characterized by heavy rainfall and average high temperatures in the 70’s and 80’s.

  9. Rainforest AnimalsAn extensive amount of animals live in these regions due to the large amounts of vegetation.

  10. Few natural ports Africa has a steep shoreline that gave it protection but also made trade and communication among Africans difficult.

  11. Difficult Rivers Most rivers like the Congo, Niger, and Zambezi are blocked by rapids contributing to difficult trade and communication. <--Recent picture of a group rafting on the rapids of the Zambezi River.

  12. Diverse SocietiesLittle contact and communication with other regions. The Kingdom of the Kush 1000BC-350AD Nubia

  13. Nubia was a great civilization that developed along the Nile River south of Egypt. They shared many of the same cultural traits as Egypt such as religion, architecture and art.

  14. These are the pyramid of Ancient Nubia. They were used as tombs. Although they are similar to those of Ancient Egypt, they have some differences.

  15. For many centuries, the people and culture of Ancient Nubia were a mystery to the world. Even the Ancient Greeks wrote about an advanced culture that was mostly unknown to other civilizations of the time.

  16. One reason little was known about the culture was that they did not write down their history until late in ancient times. Another reason is that they were isolated geographically. Outside people would need to cross harsh desert or many waterfalls to reach Nubia. T I K N W D Nubian writing was similar to Egyptian writing but developed into a completely separate language later in time.

  17. Ancient Nubia was a great kingdom that produced many resources like gold, ivory, copper, frankincense and ebony. Nubia was also known as Kush and The Land of the Bow. Nubian archers (warriors who used a bow and arrow) were feared by all who saw them in battle. A frankincense tree. The resin was used to make good smelling incense. Nubia had a long line of powerful kings. They were often at war with Egypt, to the North. Declined was most likely due to lost of fertility of land or loss of trade routes to Aksum.

  18. Aksum 0-800AD

  19. Rise of Aksum • Competition for trade routes with Nubia. • Thriving ivory trade; gold, rhinoceros horns, incense, decorative stones. • By 300AD, Aksum was a military power and conquered Nubia. • Askum became a major center for long distance trade.

  20. Success and Decline of Aksum • Trade flourished in this region that provided a connection between Rome and the east. • They even mined their own coins. • Much of the information we know about the Aksum kingdom comes from their own fine record keeping. • Power and prosperity declined due to overuse of the land and trade rivals.

  21. Lasting Effects of the Kingdom • Christianity spread to eastern Africa. • Became the official religion of Aksum • Widespread appeal as it was incorporated into traditional beliefs and customs • Influenced the foundations of the Ethiopian Church that thrives today and its important in the cultural traditions of the area.

  22. The Trading States of Africa • Great Zimbabwe • Kilwa- port that emerged from several city-states that dominated the coast of the Indian Ocean. • Control over mining and trading gold meant power over the region. • Decline started around A.D. 1400’s probably because the population grew too quickly in relation to the supply of food and water in the region.

  23. GHANA Trading state in West Africa. A.D.300-A.D.1235

  24. Ghana developed in West Africa between the Niger and the Gambia Rivers. It was an important kingdom there from about AD300 to about 1100. The rivers helped Ghana to grow rich because they were used to transport goods and develop trade. Ghana also collected taxes from traders who passed through the kingdom.

  25. The kingdom of Ghana probably began when several clans of the Soninke people of west Africa came together under the leadership of a great king named Dinga Cisse. Ghana had few natural resources except salt and gold. They were also very good at making things from iron. Ghanaian warriors used iron tipped spears to subdue their neighbors, who fought with weapons made of stone, bone, and wood.

  26. Ghana became a rich and powerful nation, especially when the camel began to be used as a source of transport. Ghana relied on trade and trade was made faster and bigger with the use of the camel. Started to decline when lost control of the salt trade.

  27. Mali Powerful trading kingdom that emerged after the decline of Ghana. A.D.1230-A.D.1468

  28. A powerful king named Sundiata ruled this area from around 1230-1255 AD. He led the people in conquering and expanding his kingdom to be as great as Ghana had been. Perhaps the greatest king of Mali was Mansa Musa (1312-1337). He developed the gold and salt trade of Mali and his kingdom became very powerful and rich.

  29. Mansa Musa was a Muslim, meaning he followed the religion of Islam. He built many beautiful mosques or Islamic temples in western Africa.

  30. In 1324 Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage ( a journey to a holy place) to Mecca, which is a holy city in Arabia, with 60,000 servants and followers and 80 camels carrying more than 4,000 pounds of gold to be distributed among the poor. Of the 12,000 servants, 500 carried a staff of pure gold. This showed his power and wealth to the other people he visited.

  31. Decline of the Mali Kingdom • No powerful leader like Mansa Musa when he died. • The great kingdom of Mali weakened. • Although Mali fell, another advanced African kingdom took its place, the kingdom of Songhai.

  32. Songhai Great trading empire from A.D.1468-A.D. 1591

  33. Rise of Songhai • Rebel leader, Sunni Ali saw that the kingdom of Mali was weakening and he led his soldiers to conquer the area. • He began the kingdom of Songhai. • He also set up a complex government to rule all the lands he had conquered.

  34. Sunni Ali died in 1492 CE. His son took over the rule of Songhai but he did not accept Islam as a religion. Islam was accepted as a religion by many people in northern Africa. One of Sunni Ali’s generals, named Muhammad Ture, overthrew the new king and made himself king of Songhai. Ture was a follower of Islam (Muslim) and so he made Islam the religion of his kingdom. This is a photo of a mosque, or place of worship for Muslims, in western Africa. Many mosques were built of local materials.

  35. Songhai remained a rich and strong kingdom under Muhammad Ture’s rule. It had a complex government centered in the city of Gao, and great centers of learning. But later rulers were not as powerful. In the late 1500s, Morocco invaded Songhai to take its rich trade routes. Moroccans had a new weapon, the gun, and the army of Songhai did not. This led to the fall of Songhai.

  36. What do these kingdoms have in common in regards to their decline? • The decline in the success of the kingdom was directly linked to the success of the trade routes or powerful leaders. • As kingdoms lost control of trade routes, they also lost their ability to maintain strong kingdoms. • Without strong leadership, kingdoms were unable to defend themselves against aggressive neighbors.

  37. Silk, Ceramics, Beads, Islam from Europe and Asia All three kingdoms of West Africa relied on trade for their strength and wealth. Salt Timbuktu Gao Jenne Gold, Ivory, Wood, Slaves Coming into West Africa Coming from Africa and going to Europe and Asia

  38. Influence and Spread of Islam • The Islamic religion spread from Arabia to northeastern Africa due to trade. • Islam appealed to many groups due to its simplicity compared to Christianity. Played a large role by influencing the development of many societies in Africa.

  39. Traditional Culture and Economy • Village-centered society. • Farming, herding, or fishing villages. • Matrilineal heritage- traced ancestors and inherited property through the mother. • Village Elders- had authority over daily life and work.

  40. Exploration of Africa Brought great changes to Africa’s peoples and cultures. Portugal-1400’s to 1600’s. 1652, Dutch immigrants arrived in South Africa. Cape Town-the first permanent European settlement. Boers-the Dutch farmers who settled in Cape Town. Treated Africans horribly by enslaving or killing many.

  41. The Slave Trade Middle Passage-shipment of slaves from Africa to the Americas.

  42. The Slaves West Africa-exchange for slaves took place on the coast of West Africa. West African slave

  43. Forced into Slavery “The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast was the sea, and a slave ship which was then riding at anchor and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror when I was carried on board.”

  44. Imperialism“Scramble For Africa” In the 1800’s, European powers start exploring the interior of Africa to expand their empires and spread influence. Religious/Cultural- “White Man’s Burden”, spread Christianity. Military and Political-need for naval bases around the world. Economic-need for resources spawned by industrialization. Nationalistic-spread sphere of influence. (Social Darwinism)

  45. Berlin Conference (1884) European leaders met in Germany to resolve potential conflicts over African colonies. Divided without consideration to boundaries the Africans already had in place, which were often based on the location of ethnic groups. How might the boundaries created by European leaders at the Berlin Conference have caused problems for the nations and people of Africa?

  46. European Control of Africa

  47. Africans Resist Imperialism The Zulus from Southern Africa. Fought against the Boers for years. Were defeated in 1879 when the British joined the fight destroying the Zulu empire.

  48. The Boer War War between the Boers and the British that lasted from 1899 until 1902. Over control of region. Involved guerilla fighting British won at a great cost to lives. Boer guerillas

  49. Independence for Africa Africans desire for independence was linked to nationalism after World War II. Pan-Africanism-cultural unity of people of African heritage in their struggle together for freedom. World-wide struggle with an appealing message “Africa for Africans”