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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1Development of American Political Parties Section 2Organization of American Political Parties Section 3Role of Political Parties Today Review to Learn Chapter Assessment Contents Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  3. Chapter Overview In Chapter 9 you learn about political parties and politics. Section 1 describes the development of political parties. Section 2 explains the organization of American political parties. Section 3 discusses the role of political parties today. Chapter Intro 1

  4. Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Chapter Intro 2 • Explain how political parties came to exist. • Describe the structure of today’s political parties. • Discuss how political parties influence life today. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  5. Chapter 9 Political Parties and Politics Chapter Intro 3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  6. End of Intro Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

  7. Guide to Reading Main Idea Shortly after our nation’s birth, political leaders formed parties in an attempt to gain control of decision making in the government. Section 1-1 Key Terms • political party • platform • plank • two-party system • third party Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  8. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing InformationAs you read, complete a web diagram similar to the one on page 218 of your textbook by writing in political parties that have developed in the United States. Also include the time period in which each party originated. Section 1-2 Read to Learn • How have political parties formed throughout U.S. history? • What are the differences between the two major parties? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  9. Gilbert Stuart’s painting of George Washington Section 1-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  10. The Two-Party System • A political party is an association of voters with broad common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the party’s candidates to public office. Section 1-4 • Parties pick candidates who agree with their beliefs and try to persuade voters to support those candidates. (pages 218–219) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  11. The Two-Party System (cont.) • Anyone may join a political party. • You simply declare yourself a member. • The United States has had two major parties, or a two-party system, during most of the country’s history. Section 1-5 (pages 218–219) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  12. The Two-Party System (cont.) • Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton disagreed strongly about how the government should operate. Section 1-6 • Hamilton wanted a strong national government and strong president. • Jefferson wanted less power for the national government and more for state governments. • Two rival political groups formed around these two leaders. (pages 218–219) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  13. The Two-Party System (cont.) • Jefferson’s group was called the Democratic-Republican Party. Section 1-7 • Jefferson’s party grew stronger. • Hamilton’s group, the Federalist Party, faded away • In 1828, the Democratic-Republican Party split, and the new leader Andrew Jackson aligned with the Democratic Party. (pages 218–219) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  14. The Two-Party System (cont.) • The Whigs (or National Republicans) rose in 1830, and the Whigs and Democrats remained the two major parties until the 1850s. Section 1-8 (pages 218–219)

  15. The Two-Party System (cont.) • In 1854 breakaway Democrats and Whigs who opposed slavery formed the Republican Party. Section 1-9 • The Whigs lost support. • Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican president in 1860. • Since then, Republicans and Democrats have been our two major parties. (pages 218–219) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  16. The Two-Party System (cont.) Discuss the views of Hamilton and Jefferson about the power of the national government. Section 1-10 Hamilton believed that individual rights were at risk if the government was too weak, so he favored a strong national government. Jefferson argued for less power for the national government and more for state governments, which were closer to the citizens. (pages 218–219) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  17. Third Parties • Third parties sometimes challenge the two major parties. Section 1-11 • A third party has never won a presidential election and rarely wins other major elections. • Third parties can influence the outcome of elections and may influence policy. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  18. Third Parties (cont.) • Farmers and laborers formed the Populists in the 1890s. Section 1-12 • They called for the direct election of senators and an eight-hour working day. • They did not win, but the two major parties adopted many of their ideas. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  19. Third Parties (cont.) • In 1912, former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt ran for president for the Progressives, or Bull Moose Party. Section 1-13 • He won enough votes away from the Republican candidate, William Howard Taft, that Democrat Woodrow Wilson won the election. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  20. Third Parties (cont.) • Some third parties arise to promote a social, economic, or moral issue. Section 1-14 • The Prohibitionist Party pushed for laws against the sale of alcohol. • Single-issue parties fade when the issue loses importance or a major party adopts it. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  21. Third Parties (cont.) • Ideological parties focus on changing society in major ways. Section 1-15 • The Socialist Labor Party and Communist Party favor government ownership of factories, resources, and farmland. • The Libertarian Party wants more individual freedom. • The Green Party opposes the power of corporations. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  22. Third Parties (cont.) • Some third parties form around well-known individuals who cannot get support from a major party. Section 1-16 • Such parties fade after their candidate’s defeat. • Republican and Democratic candidates are automatically placed on the ballot in many states. • Third-party candidates must obtain a large number of signatures to get on the ballot. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  23. Third Parties (cont.) • Usually only one candidate can win a district. Section 1-17 • Most voters favor a major party. • Third parties have trouble raising enough money to compete with the major parties. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  24. Third Parties (cont.) How can third parties influence government and social policy? Section 1-18 Third parties, such as the Populists and Prohibitionist Party, use election campaigns to try to influence citizens to accept their views on social issues or the operation of government. If they are persuasive, a major party may adopt their views, and public opinion may influence Congress to pass the laws they favor. (pages 219–221) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  25. Other Party Systems • Political parties exist in most countries, but two-party systems are rare. Section 1-19 • Most democracies have multiparty systems. • One party rarely wins enough support to control the government, so several parties must work together. • Competing interests can create a politically unstable situation. (pages 221–222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  26. Other Party Systems (cont.) • In a one-party system, the government and party are nearly the same thing. Section 1-20 • In the People’s Republic of China, only the Communist Party is allowed to exist. • A one-party system is not a democracy. • There are no rival candidates in the elections. (pages 221–222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  27. Other Party Systems (cont.) • One-party systems also exist in some non-Communist nations. Section 1-21 • Muslim leaders control Iran’s Islamic Republican Party. • Other parties are outlawed or inactive. (pages 221–222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  28. Other Party Systems (cont.) Why is the People’s Republic of China not considered a democracy? Section 1-22 Only one party–the Communist Party–is allowed to exist there. Only Communist candidates may run for office. Elections are an empty exercise since there are no rival candidates. (pages 221–222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  29. Today’s Major Parties • Competing political parties give voters a choice among candidates and ideas. Section 1-23 • The major parties differ mainly in their belief about how much the government should be involved in the lives of Americans. (page 222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  30. Today’s Major Parties (cont.) • Democrats tend to believe that the federal government should be more directly involved in regulating the economy and providing for the poor. Section 1-24 • Republicans tend to believe that if they help the economy grow, poor people will have a better chance of finding jobs and providing for themselves. • They believe in less regulation. (page 222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  31. Today’s Major Parties (cont.) • Both parties try to appeal to as many voters as possible. Section 1-25 • As a result, they tend to adopt mainstream, moderate positions and avoid extremes. • The parties are also similar because the American people generally agree about many issues. (page 222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  32. Today’s Major Parties (cont.) • A platform is a series of statements expressing the party’s principles, beliefs, and positions on issues. Section 1-26 • Each individual part is called a plank. • The platform communicates to voters what the party plans to do if it wins. (page 222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  33. Today’s Major Parties (cont.) Why are competing political parties a necessary part of democratic government? Section 1-27 They are a key link between citizens and their elected officials. They give voters a choice among candidates and ideas. They help make elections meaningful. (page 222) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  34. Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. E __ 1. each individual part of a political party’s platform __ 2. a series of statements expressing the party’s principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues __ 3. a party that challenges the two major parties __ 4. a system of government in which two parties compete for power __ 5. an association of voters with broad common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the party’s candidates to public office A. political party B. two-party system C. third party D. platform E. plank Section 1-28 D C B A Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answers.

  35. Checking for Understanding(cont.) Contrast Describe the basic differences between the views of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton regarding how government should operate. Section 1-29 Jefferson wanted to limit the power of the national government, increase protection of individual rights and liberties, and wanted more power for state governments. Hamilton wanted a stronger national government and a more powerful president. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  36. Checking for Understanding(cont.) Explain In what way have third parties been influential in U.S. politics? Section 1-30 Third parties have affected the outcome of elections and influenced government and social policies. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  37. Critical Thinking Making Inferences Which view of how government should operate–Jefferson’s or Hamilton’s–is most evident in the United States today? Explain. Section 1-31 Both are evident today. Hamilton’s is evident because the national government is stronger than state governments. Jefferson’s is evident because individual rights are protected. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  38. Analyzing Visuals Infer Examine the campaign party artifact on page 219 of your textbook. What party does it represent? Which type of third party described in the text do you think this party was? Explain your answer. Section 1-32 The artifact represents the Progressive Party. Theodore Roosevelt was an independent candidate. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  39. Close What would happen if the United States went to a one-party system? Section 1-33

  40. End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

  41. Guide to Reading Main Idea Both the Republicans and the Democrats have highly organized political organizations at the local, state, and national levels. Section 2-1 Key Terms • national committee • precinct • ward • county chairperson • political machine • national party chairperson • delegate • caucus Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  42. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing InformationAs you read, use a chart like the one on page 223 of your textbook to help you take notes about the three levels of political party organizations. Section 2-2 Read to Learn • How are local, state, and national political party committees organized? • How do political machines sometimes emerge? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  43. At the Republican National Convention Section 2-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  44. National Party Organization • The goal that unites a party’s national, state, and local organizations is to help the party win as many offices as possible. Section 2-4 • Each party has a national committee made up of representatives from every state. • It raises funds for presidential elections and organizes the party’s national convention. • A national party chairperson runs the committee. (pages 223–224) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  45. National Party Organization (cont.) • At the national convention, party delegates from all states write the platform and nominate candidates for president and vice president. Section 2-5 • Each party chooses delegates in primary elections and caucuses, or meetings, of state and local party organizations. (pages 223–224) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  46. National Party Organization (cont.) • Historically, national conventions were suspenseful. Section 2-6 • Today, primary elections generally decide the nominations before the conventions take place. • Both parties also have House and Senate campaign committees made up of members of Congress. • They work to elect party members as senators and representatives. (pages 223–224) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  47. State and Local Organization • Each party has 50 state organizations that work to elect their party’s candidates for national office. Section 2-8 • Local party organizations consist of city, town, and county committees. • They include the party’s elected officials. (pages 224–226) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  48. State and Local Organization (cont.) • Each city or county is divided into election districts or precincts. Section 2-9 • A precinct is a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters. • It may be an entire small town or part of a large city. • All voters in a precinct use the same voting place. (pages 224–226) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  49. State and Local Organization (cont.) • A precinct captain organizes other party volunteers and encourages people to vote. Section 2-10 • Several adjoining precincts make up a ward. • A volunteer represents the ward at the party’s county committee. (pages 224–226) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  50. State and Local Organization (cont.) • Counties are the largest political units in a state. Section 2-11 • A county chairperson runs the county committee and has great power if the county is large. (pages 224–226) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.