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    1. Social/Behavioral Research

    2. What is Social/Behavioral Research Social and behavioral research refers broadly to research that deals with human attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. It is often characterized by data collection methods such as questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, direct or participant observation, and non-invasive physical measurements Biomedical and clinical researchers often incorporate social/behavioral research goals and methodologies into their physiological research

    3. Data collection methods Questionnaires (written questions) or interviews (oral questions, either by phone or in person). These may be open-ended or fixed-answer with pre-established categories such as a Likert scale. Medication diaries and behavior logs are actually special forms of open-ended questionnaires. Some biomedical researchers may also use standardized questionnaires such as intelligence tests or psychiatric diagnostic assessments. Give the big picture of the subject Opinion data and other oral data from key informant interviews, focus groups, or group discussions.

    4. Data Collection Methods, Cont., Direct observation of behavior and interactions. Data already collected for other purposes, such as records from education, health care, social service programs, employment, and insurance coverage Non-invasive physiological measurement, such as skin impedance and pupil dilation as reflection of emotional arousal or attention

    5. Risks Psychosocial stress and discomfort, disruption of personal and family relationships, Economic Political harm (if identifiable data falling into the wrong hands) Stress and discomfort may result from being asked personal questions, from being deceived, or from being subjected to research procedures designed to manipulate emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Risks may be less predictable, more subjective and variable, and less remediable than physiological harms. For example, it is more difficult to predict how an individual will respond to answering a question about childhood sexual abuse than to predict an individuals reaction to having blood drawn.

    6. Managing and Minimizing Risks of Harm Data management Many risks in social/behavioral research are the result of breaches of confidentiality involving sensitive data. Coding data, securing the master list linking the code to the subject identifier, maintaining the data in a secure environment, or de-linking data from identifiers can minimize risks resulting from breach of confidentiality. Debriefing participants Adequate informed consent

    7. Informed Consent for Behavioral Research The statement "there are no risks" should not be used. Though there maybe no physical risks, it is always necessary to consider whether there is a possibility of emotional/ psychological risk, loss or breach of confidentiality or stigmatization. Describe the content of questions, interview topics, etc., include examples of the MOST personal, sensitive, or distressing questions that will be asked. State that participants have the right to refuse to answer any question for any reason. If recordings are used, the consent should state that subjects have the right to review and delete recordings that will be kept indefinitely or shared outside of the research team If focus groups are used, subjects should be reminded that the identities of fellow participants and the information exchanged are confidential

    8. A researcher is conducting a written survey about peoples attitudes toward walking as an exercise option at the local shopping mall that supports a walking program. The survey is anonymous (without codes, names or other information) and volunteers may complete the survey and place it in a box at the shopping mall exits. Which of the following is the most important issue that the researcher addressed in planning the research?

    9. The most important issue that the researcher addressed in planning the research is the confidentiality of the individual subjects responses. By making the survey anonymous, no one, even the researcher, has knowledge of the individuals identity. While recruitment strategies, minimizing emotional distress, and having a large size are important issues to address, the confidentiality of the individual subject responses is the most important in this example.