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Cascading Style Sheets™ (CSS)

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  1. Cascading Style Sheets™ (CSS) Outline 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Inline Styles 5.3 Embedded Style Sheets 5.4 Conflicting Styles 5.5 Linking External Style Sheets 5.6 Web Resources

  2. Objectives • In this lesson, you will learn: • To control the appearance of a Web site by creating style sheets. • To use a style sheet to give all the pages of a Web site the same look and feel. • To use the class attribute to apply styles. • To use style sheets to separate presentation from content.

  3. 5.1  Introduction • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) • Separation of structure from presentation • Three methods of CSS: • Inline Styles • Embedded Style Sheets • Conflicting Styles • Linking External Style Sheets

  4. 5.2  Inline Styles • Declare an individual element’s format • Attribute style • CSS property followed by a colon and a value • i.e: style = “font-size:20pt”

  5. Example1: Inline styles: inline.html The style attribute allows you to declare inline styles. Separate multiple styles with a semicolon. <body> <p>This text does not have any style applied to it.</p> <p style = "font-size: 20pt">This text has the <em>font-size</em> style applied to it, making it 20pt. </p> <p style = "font-size: 20pt; color: #0000ff"> This text has the <em>font-size</em> and <em>color</em> styles applied to it, making it 20pt. and blue.</p> </body>

  6. 5.3  Embedded Style Sheets • Embed an entire CSS document in an XHTML document’s head section

  7. Example2: Embedded style sheets: declared.html this begins the style sheet section <head> <style type = "text/css"> em { background-color: #8000ff; color: white } h1 { font-family: arial, sans-serif } p { font-size: 14pt } .special { color: blue } </style> </head> <h1 class = "special">Deitel &amp; Associates, Inc.</h1> <p>Deitel &amp; Associates, Inc. .. programming, and Object Technology.</p> <h1>Clients</h1> <p class = "special"> The company's clients include many <em>Fortune 1000 companies</em>, government agencies, branches …. and World Wide Web courses.</p>

  8. 5.4  Conflicting Styles • Inheritance • Descendant’s properties have greater specificity than ancestor’s properties

  9. Example3: Inheritance in style sheets: advanced.html <style type = "text/css"> a.nodec { text-decoration: none } a:hover { text-decoration: underline;color: red;background-color: #ccffcc } li em { color: red;font-weight: bold } ul { margin-left: 75px } ul ul { text-decoration: underline; margin-left: 15px } </style> <h1>Shopping list for <em>Monday</em>:</h1> <ul> <li>Milk</li> <li>Bread <ul> <li>White bread</li> <li>Rye bread</li> <li>Whole wheat bread</li> </ul> </li> <li>Rice</li> <li>Potatoes</li> <li>Pizza <em>with mushrooms</em></li> </ul> <p><a class = "nodec" href = "http://www.food.com">Go to the Grocery store</a></p>

  10. Example3: Inheritance in style sheets: advanced.html <style type = "text/css"> a.nodec { text-decoration: none } a:hover { text-decoration: underline;color: red;background-color: #ccffcc } li em { color: red;font-weight: bold } ul { margin-left: 75px } ul ul { text-decoration: underline; margin-left: 15px } </style> <h1>Shopping list for <em>Monday</em>:</h1> <ul> <li>Milk</li> <li>Bread <ul> <li>White bread</li> <li>Rye bread</li> <li>Whole wheat bread</li> </ul> </li> <li>Rice</li> <li>Potatoes</li> <li>Pizza <em>with mushrooms</em></li> </ul> <p><a class = "nodec" href = "http://www.food.com">Go to the Grocery store</a></p>

  11. 5.5  Linking External Style Sheets • External style sheets • Can provide uniform look and feel to entire site

  12. Example4: External style sheets: styles.css a { text-decoration: none } a:hover { text-decoration: underline; color: red; background-color: #ccffcc } li em { color: red; font-weight: bold; background-color: #ffffff } ul { margin-left: 2cm } ul ul { text-decoration: underline; margin-left: .5cm }

  13. Example4: Linking external style sheets: external.html <head> <link rel = "stylesheet" type = "text/css" href = "styles.css" /> </head> <body> <h1>Shopping list for <em>Monday</em>:</h1> <ul> <li>Milk</li> <li>Bread <ul> <li>White bread</li> <li>Rye bread</li> <li>Whole wheat bread</li> </ul> </li> <li>Rice</li> <li>Potatoes</li> <li>Pizza <em>with mushrooms</em></li> </ul> <p> <a href = "http://www.food.com">Go to the Grocery store</a> </p> </body>

  14. 5.6  Web Resources • www.w3.org/TR/css3-roadmap • www.ddj.com/webreview/style • tech.irt.org/articles/css.htm