Scientific Diving Introduction
Scientific Diving Overview • Why are we here? • History of scientific diving • American Academy of Underwater Sciences • Science diving training • Course content, format • Operational considerations
Scientific Diving Why are we here? • To develop independent divers • Scientific divers must be trained to work under water with a level of proficiency that allows them to focus on the research task.
Scientific Diving History of Scientific Diving 332 BC: Alexander the Great • bell-type diving to observe the marine life 1844: Henri Milne-Edwards • underwater observations at 25 feet 1930: Florida Geological Survey •used hard-hat diving equipment to collect fossil skeletons 1934: Kitching •used diving helmet for kelp bed observations
Scientific Diving History of Scientific Diving 1949: C. Limbaugh and A. Rechnitzer start using SCUBA at UCLA 1951: Initial SIO diving safety courses taught by C. Limbaugh 1954: Limbaugh and others publish University of California diving safety rules and regulations 1970s: Proliferation of self-regulating programs and standards
AAUS Scientific Diver History Scientific Diving 1975: United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America & AFL-CIO petition OSHA for professional diving operation standards 1977-79: OSHA establishes Commercial Diving Regs. • scientific diving community included, realizes the immediate effect on dive ops • SDC cites ruling as too restrictive • SDC provides data on exemplary exposure-incident statistics and self-regulating standards. 1985: OSHA final rule:Scientific diving gets exemption
Scientific Diving History of Scientific Diving Section 1910.402 Definitions “Scientific diving is diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks.”
Scientific Diving History of Scientific Diving Section 1910.401: Scope and application “However, this standard does not apply to any diving operation: (iv) Defined as scientific diving and which is under the direction and control of a diving program containing at least the following elements:” A. Diving Safety Manual B. Diving Control Board
Scientific Diving History of Scientific Diving • The diving control board consists of a majority of active divers and has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program’s operations. • The purpose of the project using scientific diving is the advancement of science; therefore, information and data resulting from the project are non-proprietary. • The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data gatherer. Construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated with commercial diving are not included within scientific diving. • Scientific divers, based on the nature of their activities, must use scientific expertise in studying the underwater environment and, therefore, are scientists or scientists in training.
Scientific Diving OSHA and Other Diving Standards International regulatory/advisory bodies • EU and country regulations; • European Scientific Diving Panel of the European Science Foundation • ConfédérationMondiale des ActivitésSubaquatiques Scientific Committee. • Codes of Practice: Fleming, N.C. and M.D. Max (eds.) 1996. Scientific Diving: A General Code of Practice, UNESCO, Paris. 278 pp.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Mission Statement “to facilitate the development of safe and productive scientific divers through education, research, advocacy, and the advancement of standards for scientific diving practices, certifications and operations.” www.aaus.org
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences • To develop, review, and revise standards for safe scientific diving certification and the safe operation of scientific diving programs • To collect, review, and distribute statistics relating to scientific diving activities and scientific diving incidents • To educate members and the public on safe scientific diving practices • To represent the interests of the membership and the scientific diving community beforeorganizations and government agencies • To fund research, education, and development of safe scientific diving practices
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences • AAUS is an organization of organizations • AAUS accredits Scientific Diving Programs, NOT individual scientific divers; divers are still accredited by the Organizational Member. • The strength of the Academy is in its Organizational Membership (OM) Program
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Scientific diving entities: • research institutions • Federal and state government agencies • public and private universities, museums and aquaria (predominantly research, education and teaching) • consulting companies (predominantly contractual environmental, geological and archaeological investigations)
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences U.S. scientific diver population: • Approximately 4,000 individual scientific divers • Long-term, career scientific divers (e.g. federal employees, university professors, resource managers, research technicians) in the 35+ average age category with low turnover rates and a student population of undergraduate and graduate students in the 18-35 average age category with high turnover rates in OM programs. • No upper age limit for scientific diving certification exists, the lower limit is generally 18 years of age.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Scientific diving operations are conducted in various environments worldwide: • tropical seas • temperate waters • freshwater rivers and lakes • karst formations and caves • polar environments • blue water (open ocean) • submarine canyons • bays and estuaries • offshore platforms • contaminated waters • deepwater reefs Photo: M. Brandt
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences AAUS Statistics
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences AAUS Motivation 29 CFR Part 1910 “OSHA believes that this favorable comparison of incidence rates, along with other data contained in the record, is, indeed, evidence of an effective system of self-regulation by the scientific diving community. OSHA further believes…, increased risks to scientific divers would not result if removed from coverage under Subpart T.”
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences AAUS Motivation Validation of effective standards • Collect, analyze and review scientific diving incident reports of occurrences and accidents related to scientific diving Advocacy for continued self-regulation • Prepare and distribute statistical reports and summaries…analyzing and describing the functional application and practical effects of existing and proposed scientific diving policies, standards, programs and practices
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences AAUS Numbers • 1998-2010 • 54-125 Organizational Members Reporting • 2,716-4,769 divers/year • 69,234-128,502 total dives/year • 23.7-31.3 average dives/diver/year • 38.8-44.5 minutes/dive • 2-5 DCI cases reported/year
Scientific Diving Statistics on AAUS members, dives, safety 138,179 dives 136 OMs 71,042 55 4,953 divers 2,997 8 incidents 5
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Types of Incidents Reported • 60 incidents over 5 years • Some are not OSHA reportable but are included anyway Other DCI 50% Environmental Trauma Sinus/Ear Barotrauma
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Why be AAUS? • Community Standard • Risk Management • Reciprocity • Training
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Diving Reciprocity Reciprocity between OMs • Based on the principle that all AAUS OMs are training scientific divers to the same consensual scientific diving standards. • This process allows collaboration between AAUS OM programs with minimum overlap in paperwork and training while meeting liability needs. • Letter of Reciprocity is a diving verification of training and statement of currency in an AAUS OM program. Indemnifications are usually not included and most OMs require use of their own forms that address their unique liability needs.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences • Some AAUS OMs may require additional steps to be taken (such as a check-out dive or DFA on a yearly basis) before full reciprocity is granted • Memoranda of Understanding providing reciprocity may be enacted with external (non-AAUS) organizations, (e.g. NOAA, NPS) • Reciprocity is a mechanism that manages the host and home institution’s exposure to liability, and provides some measure of diving compatibility for collaborative underwater research projects • Reciprocity encourages workman’s compensation, liability and emergency medical treatment coverage be sorted out between institutions beforehand.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences How reciprocity works • Scientific diver(s) from an AAUS OM (home institution) will participate in a scientific diving project under the auspices of another AAUS OM (host institution) • A dive plan is submitted to the home OM DSO and the host OM DSO • Request for Letter of Reciprocity (LOR) to be sent from home DSO to host DSO • All divers must be current in all AAUS requirements. • Reciprocity for Divers-in-Training is usually not granted except for controlled course situations • Host DSO receives and reviews LOR and resolves any discrepancies with Home DSO
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Reciprocity scenarios: • Scientists from different OMs diving together • Scientists from home OM using facilities or equipment from the host OM Operational Considerations • Depth certification limitations • Requirements for dive computer use to monitor decompression status Verification of Training versus Letter of Reciprocity • Third party reciprocity cautions regarding assumption of liability • Divers who have left AAUS OMs and are now employed by a non-AAUS institution
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Why be AAUS? • Community Standard • Risk Management • Reciprocity • Training
Selection Criteria • Must present aneedfor training • Diver certification • Good physical condition • Physical exam
100 Hour Course Practical training • Swimming proficiency • CPR, emergency oxygen administration, first aid for diving accidents • Dive rescue techniques • Dive management
100 Hour Course Dive Management Dives • Pool checkout • O/W checkout • Navigation • Rescue Skills (pool) • Rescue Skills (O/W) • Low visibility assembly, transects and navigation (3 dives) • Panama City jetties (2 dives) • Inshore boat dive (2 dives) • Offshore boat dive (2 dives)
100 Hour Course Alternate Dives • Estuarium-- animal husbandry/fish ID • Oyster reef transects/quadrats • Big Lagoon seagrass transects/quadrats • Search and Recovery for sediment grab
100 Hour Course Exams • DAN First Aid for Professional Divers • Rescue • Nitrox • Final
100 Hour Course Schedule http://share.disl.org/dardeau/Lists/Calendar/calendar.aspx
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Recreational Diver 30-40 hours training Training varies with agency Variable number of training dives Table use Buddy breathing Rescue skills No medical exam Lifetime certification Scientific Diver 100 hours training AAUS training standards Medical required Must maintain active status Emergency training required Employer/employee relationship
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Operational Considerations • Initially, a diver is authorized to dive to 30' (10m) depth • After 12 supervised dives between 31' and 60’, diver is authorized to dive to 60'. • After 4 supervised dives between 61' and 100’, diver is authorized to dive to 100'. • After 4 supervised dives between 100' and 130’, diver is authorized to 130’. • Divers may be certified to 150' and 190‘ by logging 4 supervised dives near each depth and completing a successful check-out dive with DSO
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences OM Auspices Defined as support or sponsorship of any scientific diving operation in which an OM is connected because of ownership of equipment, locations selected, or relationship with the individual(s) concerned.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences OM Auspices No person shall engage in scientific diving operations under the auspices of an AAUS OM scientific diving program unless they hold a current certification issued pursuant to the provisions of the AAUS standards.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Operational Control • Diving Control Board (DCB)--Establishes diving policies and acts as a board of appeal for scientific divers • Diving Safety Officer (DSO)--Runs the day-to-day-diving operations including training and scientific diving. Serves under the guidance of the DCB
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Diving Procedures • Solo Diving Prohibition • Divers may deviate from the standard to prevent or minimize a situation that is likely to cause death, serious physical harm, or major environmental damage. • Emergencies
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Emergencies • Diver Surfacing and Interrupting Decompression Schedule • Divers Separated on Bottom • Diver Recall • Missing Diver • Injured Diver
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Lead Diver Responsibilities • The designated Lead Diver shall be at the dive location. • Ensures dive team members possess current certification and are qualified. • Plans dives, coordinating with other activities likely to interfere with diving operations and briefs dive team members. • Ensures safety and emergency equipment is in working order and on site. • Reports to the DSO and DCB dive-related problems including symptoms of pressure-related injuries.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Pre-Dive Procedures • Dive and Emergency Plans • Pre-dive Safety Checks
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Pre-Dive Safety Checks • Diver’s Responsibility: • It is the diver’s responsibility and duty to refuse to dive if, in their judgment, conditions are unfavorable, or if they would be violating the precepts of their training, or the DISL’s diving safety manual. • No dive team member shall be required to be exposed to hyperbaric conditions against their will, except when necessary to prevent or treat a pressure-related injury. • No dive team member shall be permitted to dive for the duration of any known condition, which is likely to adversely affect the safety and health of the diver or other dive members. • Equipment Evaluations: • Divers shall ensure that their equipment is in proper working order and that the equipment is suitable for the type of diving operation. Scientific divers shall conduct a functional check of their diving equipment in the presence of the diving buddy or tender. • Each diver shall have the capability of achieving and maintaining positive buoyancy. • Site Evaluation • Environmental conditions at the site will be evaluated.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Post-Dive Safety Checks • After the completion of a dive, each diver shall report any physical problems, symptoms of decompression sickness, or equipment malfunctions. • When diving outside the no-decompression limits, the divers should remain awake for at least 1 hour after diving, and in the company of a dive team member who is prepared to transport them to a decompression chamber if necessary.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Flying After Diving or Ascending to Altitude • Following a Single No-Decompression Dive: Divers should have a minimum preflight surface interval of 12 hours. • Following Multiple Dives per Day or Multiple Days of Diving: Divers should have a minimum preflight surface interval of 18 hours. • Following Dives Requiring Decompression Stops: Divers should have a minimum preflight surface interval of 24 hours. • Before ascending to Altitude above (1000 feet) by Land Transport: Divers should follow the appropriate guideline for preflight surface intervals unless the decompression procedure used has accounted for the increase in elevation.
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Record Keeping Requirements • Personal Diving Log • Required Incident Reporting
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences Operational Requirements • Training and medical • Dive Plans and Logs • 12 Dives per year minimum • Oxygen on site • Equipment inspection
Scientific Diving American Academy of Underwater Sciences 3 Rules to Live By Never, ever, hold your breath underwater! Plan your dive, dive your plan! If you are not comfortable, for whatever reason, call the dive!