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Chapter 10: Emotion pgs. 440-456

Chapter 10: Emotion pgs. 440-456. Music: “Not Afraid” Eminem “Dog Days are Over” Glee Cast. Agenda. 1 . Definition of Emotion: 3 Components a) Subjective/Cognitive b) Physiological c) Behavioural 2. Expression of Emotion a) Nonverbal communication

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Chapter 10: Emotion pgs. 440-456

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  1. Chapter 10: Emotionpgs. 440-456 Music: “Not Afraid” Eminem “Dog Days are Over” Glee Cast

  2. Agenda • 1. Definition of Emotion: 3 Components • a) Subjective/Cognitive • b) Physiological • c) Behavioural • 2. Expression of Emotion • a) Nonverbal communication • b) Cultural universals • c) Individual differences • d) Detecting Deceit • e) How to cope with our feelings • 3. Experiencing Emotions • a) Fear b) Anger c) Happiness • 4. Theories of Emotion

  3. Emotion • “Every feeling has its value and significance…” • Our basic driving force is to seek pleasure and avoid pain. • 1. Definition: 3 Components • a) Subjective: • Pleasant/unpleasant internal state + Associated thoughts & questions • Appraisals/focus shape emotional experience • Thoughts can intensify emotions • b) Physiological: • Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (p. 441) • Changes in breathing, perspiration, heart rate

  4. b) Physiological component: p. 443

  5. 1. b) Physiological Response (continued) • p. 441, Fig. 10.20

  6. C) Behavioural Reaction: Visible bodily expression E.g. change in facial expression and body posture Third component of emotion:

  7. 2. Expression of Emotion: • a) Nonverbal expression: • 80 facial muscles involved • Distinct patterns associated with particular emotions • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrgNKGjSyxA • Gender differences in reading and expressing emotions • b) Cultural Universals • Facial expressions represent a universal language • For primary emotions: fear, anger, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness/distress • Display rules vary according to culture

  8. 2. c) Individual Differences in Emotional Expression: • Some individuals are naturally more expressive than others (see ACT items) • Others are conflicted about showing their emotions (see AEQ items) • Expression has health benefits! • Diary studies

  9. 2. d) Detecting Deceit: • Polygraph: • Measures autonomic arousal (emotion detector) • heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, GSR • Lie detector has serious limitations (p. 442) • Micro-expressions may leak emotions

  10. 2. e) How to cope with our feelings • Be aware • Allow and accept • Regulate: What do you need?

  11. 3. Experiencing Emotion • Fear: • Can paralyze • Can also lead to adaptive response • Conditioning and observational learning explain acquisition of fears (mediated by amygdala) • Anger: • Appraisal is critical: Perceived offense against us involving a responsible agent. • What to do with angry feelings? • Hostile outbursts often lead to escalations • Brewing/holding-in also detrimental • 1) Clarify misunderstanding • Assert how you feel, what you need • 2) Try to see it from the other’s perspective • Allows forgiveness to occur

  12. 3. Happiness: • How happy are YOU? p. 450

  13. 3. Happiness • Would more money make you happier? • Student aspirations • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXFydMKIZRA • External events have short-turn impact • After some time, lottery winners are not much happier than paraplegics • GNP and subjective well-being across countries • Average American is three times as rich as he was in the 60’s but no happier • Relationship between wealthy and happiness is tenuous at best … Yet people aspire to make more money!

  14. 3. Happiness (p. 450-454) • Strong Predictors: • Love • Married people report higher levels of happiness • Work Satisfaction • Substantial association with general happiness • Personality and temperament • 50% or more heritable, but not genetically fixed

  15. 3. Happiness • Moderate Predictors: • Health • Particularly important later in life • Social Activity • Strong personal relationships foster better health and mood • Religion • Provides meaning • Comfort and support • Especially in times of stress

  16. 3. Invest in Happiness • Nurture your relationships/ Find love • Practice Acts of Kindness • Find meaning and purpose in your life: • Through work or spirituality • Derive meaning from adversity • What doesn’t kill you will make you stronger • Practice self-compassion • Work on your outlook: • Don’t compare yourself to others • Focus on what you have (rather than what you don’t have) • Count your blessings; keep a gratitude journal • Don’t dwell on your setbacks • Distract yourself after a disappointment • Take care of your body

  17. 4. Theories of Emotion • Does your heart pound because you are afraid, or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding? • Fig. 10.25, p. 447

  18. See you next week • And Be kind to yourself and others

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