Drugs Intermediate 1 Biology Unit 1 – Health and Technology
Introduction • Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years -wine was used at least from the time of the early Egyptians -narcotics from 4000 BC -medicinal use of marijuana has been dated to 2737BC in China
Types of Drugs-Stimulants • Drugs that act on the central nervous system and increase brain activity. • Some give feelings of alertness, greater energy and confidence. • They may also reduce appetite
Examples of Stimulants • Cocaine • Crack • Ecstasy • Alkyl Nitrites e.g. poppers • Amphetamines • Nicotine
Types of Drugs-Depressants • Drugs that act on the central nervous system and slow down brain activity. • Impaired co-ordination, balance and judgement are common. • Higher doses can lead progressively to drowsiness, vomiting, coma and even death.
Examples of Depressants • Volatile substances or sniffable substances (eg glues, gases, aerosols) • Alcohol • Tranquillisers • GHB (Gamma hydroxy-butyrate)
Types of Drugs-Hallucinogens • Drugs that act to change the way users experience the world through the five senses. • Sometimes this involves seeing, and hearing things which aren't there.
Examples of Hallucinogens • Cannabis • LSD • Magic mushrooms • Ketamine
Types of Drugs - Analgesics • Drugs that have a painkilling effect. e.g. -heroin -opium -morphine
Types of Drugs – Anabolic Steroids • Drugs that promote muscle growth and increase lean body mass. • These drugs mostly have legitimate medical uses • They are often misused by those wishing to enhance their athletic performance or strength.
Statistics • The following statistics are from the results of a major national survey of secondary schoolchildren aged 11-15 published by the Department of Health (DH) in 2002.
12% of pupils had used illegal drugs in the last month and 20% had used illegal drugs in the last year • 13% of boys reported taking drugs in the last month compared to 11% of girls • Use increased with age. Six percent of 11-year-olds had used drugs in the last year compared to 39% of 15-year-olds
Cannabis is the most likely drug to have been used, with 13% of pupils reporting use in the last year. • Cannabis use also increases sharply with age with 1% of 11-year-olds having used the drug in past year compared with 31% of 15-year-olds • Class A drugs had been used by 4% of 11-15 year olds. One percent say they used heroin or cocaine
Risks of Using Drugs • Risks vary according to: -circumstances of the use -the motivation and knowledge level of the user -their mood and expectation at the time of use -the manner of use -size of dose -purity of the sample
Risks Factors Involved in Drug Taking • Users can never be sure of exactly what they are taking • Not knowing the strength of what has been bought could lead to an accidental overdose (which may be life-threatening) • Users can't be precisely sure of the effect the drug will have, even if they have taken it before.
Sharing dirty needles or syringes carries a risk of serious infections • Mixing drugs, or drugs with alcohol • Getting a criminal record. • Effects on relationships, financial pressures, reducing judgement or performance etc.
Class A Drugs • Amphetamines (speed) - if prepared for injection • Cocaine and crack • Ecstasy • Heroin • LSD (acid) • Magic mushrooms - if prepared for use.
Possession of Class A Drugs • Possession: -seven years prison and/or a fine • Possession with intentto supply -life imprisonment and/or a fine
Class B Drugs • Amphetamines (speed) • Possession -five years prison and/or a fine • Possession with intent to supply -14 years prison and/or a fine
Class C Drugs • Anabolic steroids • Cannabis • Mild amphetamines • GBH • Tranquillisers DF 118 (painkillers)
Possession of Class C Drugs • Possession -two years prison and/or a fine • Possession with intent to supply -14 years prison and/or a fine
Useful Websites • http://www.mindbodysoul.gov.uk/drugs/drugmenu.html • http://www.sorted4.info/html/400/430.html • http://www.stonerlemmings.com • http://www.lifebytes.gov.uk/drugs/drugs_facts.html
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