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  1. 17 Chapter Global Marketing and R&D

  2. China major market for Coca-Cola Expected to surpass consumption in the US in the next decade To reach goals aggressive marketing campaign Market information helps define sales and distribution strategies Coca- Colas hurdle is distribution & pricing Coke only reaches 8% of population High transportation costs makes Coke most expensive where people are the poorest Case: Marketing Coca-Cola in China

  3. Important to determine when product standardization is appropriate in an international market Firms may need to vary marketing mix in each different country Globalization may be the exception rather than the rule in many consumer goods markets and industrial markets The globalization of markets and brands

  4. Market segmentation • Refers to identifying distinct groups of consumers whose purchasing behavior differs from others in important ways • Segments can based on: • Geography • Demography • Socio-cultural factors • Psychological factors

  5. Two main issues relating to segmentation: Extent of differences between countries in the structure of market segments Existence of segments that transcend national borders Market segmentation

  6. Cultural differences Economic development Product and technical standards Product attributes

  7. Differ along dimensions such as social structure, language, religion and education Impact of tradition Some tastes and preferences becoming cosmopolitan Cultural differences

  8. Consumer behavior is influenced by economic development Consumers in highly developed countries tend to demand extra performance attributes in their products Price not a factor due to high income level Consumers in less developed countries, value basic features as more important Price a factor due to lower income level Cars: no air-conditioning, power steering, power windows, radios and cassette players. Product reliability is more important Economic development

  9. Government standards can rule out mass production and marketing of a standardized product Differing technical standards constrain globalization of markets Different television signal frequencies Product and technical standards

  10. Choice of the optimal channel for delivering a product to the consumer Optimal strategy is determined by the relative costs and benefits of each alternative Depends on differences between countries retail concentration channel length channel exclusivity Distribution strategy

  11. A typical distribution system FIG 17.1

  12. Concentrated system common in developed countries contributing factors: increase in car ownership, number of households with refrigerators and freezers and two-income households Fragmented system common in developing countries contributing factors: great population density with large number of urban centers e.g. Japan uneven or mountainous terrain e.g. Nepal Retail concentration

  13. Refers to number of intermediaries between the producer and the consumer Determined by degree to which the retail system is fragmented Long distribution channel Short distribution channel Channel length

  14. Long distribution channel Fragmented retail system promotes growth of wholesalers and retailers Firms go through intermediaries such as wholesalers to cut selling costs Short distribution channel Concentrated retail system Firms deal directly with retailers Channel length

  15. Degree to which it is difficult for outsiders to access distribution channels Varies between countries Japan - exclusive systems because personal relations, often decades old play important role in stocking products Difficult for new firm to get shelf space as compared to an old firm Channel exclusivity

  16. Communication strategy • Defines the process the firm will use in communicating the attributes of its product to prospective customers Cultural barriers Source effects Noise levels

  17. Cultural Barriers Develop cross-cultural literacy Firm should use local input such as local advertising agency and sales force Barriers to international communication

  18. Source and country of origin effects Receiver of the message evaluates the message based on status or image of the sender Anti-Japan wave in US in 1990’s Place of manufacturing influences product evaluations Often used when consumer lacks more detailed knowledge of the product Examples: French wines, Italian clothes and German luxury cars Barriers to international communication

  19. Noise levels Amount of other messages competing for a potential customer’s attention Developed countries - high. Less developed countries - low. Standardized advertising strategy execution more difficult (culture, laws) Barriers to international communication

  20. Push strategy emphasizes personal selling Requires intense use of a sales force Relatively costly Pull strategy depends on mass media advertising Can be cheaper for a large market segment Determining factors of type of strategy Product type and consumer sophistication Channel length Media availability Push versus pull strategy

  21. Pull strategy Consumer goods Large market segment Long distribution channels Mass communication has cost advantages Push strategy Industrial products or complex new products Direct selling allows firms to educate users Short distribution channels Used in poorer nations for consumer goods where direct selling only way to reach consumers Product type and consumer sophistication

  22. Pull strategy Long or exclusive distribution channels e.g. Japan Mass advertising to generate demand to pull product through various layers Push Strategy In countries with low literacy levels to educate consumers Channel length

  23. Pull strategy Relies on access to advertising media Common in developed nations Push strategy Media availability limited by law All electronic media state owned with no commercial policy Media availability

  24. Global advertising • Standardized: • Significant economic advantages • Scarce creative talent • Many global brand names • Non-standardized: • Cultural differences • Advertising regulations can be a restriction

  25. Three aspects of international pricing strategy Price discrimination Strategic pricing Regulatory influence on prices Pricing strategy

  26. Said to occur when consumers in different countries are charged different prices for the same product Two conditions necessary National markets kept separate to prevent arbitrage Capitalization of price differentials by purchasing product in countries where prices are lower and reselling where prices are higher Different price elasticities of demand in different countries Greater in countries with low income levels & highly competitive conditions Price discrimination

  27. Elastic and inelastic demand curves Fig 17.2

  28. Price discrimination Fig. 17.3

  29. Predatory pricing Using price as a competitive weapon to drive weaker competition out of a national market Firms then raise prices to enjoy high profits Firms normally have profitable position in another national market Strategic pricing

  30. Multipoint pricing strategy Two or more international firms compete against each other in two or more national markets A firm’s pricing strategy in one market may impact a rival in another market. Kodak and Fuji Strategic pricing

  31. Experience curve pricing Firms price low worldwide to build market share Incurred losses are made up as company moves down experience curve, making substantial profits Cost advantage over its less-aggressive competitors Strategic pricing

  32. Antidumping regulations Selling a product for a price that is less than the cost of producing it Antidumping rules vague, but place a floor under export prices and limit a firm’s ability to pursue strategic pricing Article 6 of GATT, allows action against an importer if the product is sold at ‘less than fair value’ and causes ‘material injury to a domestic industry’ Competition policy Regulations designed to promote competition and restrict monopoly practices Regulatory influences on prices

  33. Configuring the marketing mix Standards Differences Here Competition Distribution Economy Gov’t Regs Culture Product Attributes Pricing Strategy Requires Variation Here Communications Strategy Distribution Strategy

  34. The location of R & D Rate of new product development greater in countries where More money spent on R&D Underlying demand is strong Consumers are affluent Competition is intense New product development

  35. Integrating R&D, production and marketing ensures Project development driven by customer needs New products are designed for ease of manufacture Development costs are kept in check Time to market is minimized Integrating R&D, marketing and production

  36. High failure rate ratio Between 33 % and 60% of new products fail to earn adequate profits Reasons for failure: Limited product demand Failure to adequately commercialize product Inability to manufacture product cost-effectively Integrating R&D, marketing and production

  37. Objective of team to take a product development project from the initial concept development to market introduction Effective teams must have “Heavyweight “ project manager One member from each key function Physically co-located to facilitate communication Clear plan and goals Own process for communication and conflict resolution Cross-functional product development teams