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Chapter 17 Chapter Review. Place these notes into your notebook. Vocabulary Review. conduction, convection Conduction is the transfer of energy through collisions. Convection is the transfer of energy through currents. Vocabulary Review. convection, radiation
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Chapter 17 Chapter Review Place these notes into your notebook.
Vocabulary Review • conduction, convection Conduction is the transfer of energy through collisions. Convection is the transfer of energy through currents.
Vocabulary Review • convection, radiation Convection can transfer energy only within a liquid or gas; it does not require a medium.
Vocabulary Review • troposphere, stratosphere Troposphere; lowest layer of atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude; stratosphere; above troposphere, temperature increases with altitude.
Vocabulary Review • The bottom layer in a(n) ___________ of air is colder than the air above it. Temperature inversion
Vocabulary Review • On a map, all of the points on a(n)_____________ are the same temperature. isotherm
Vocabulary Review • Although in the stratosphere it is beneficial to humans, _____________ near Earth’s surface is harmful to humans. ozone
Concept Review • Which gas makes up the most of the atmosphere? nitrogen
Concept Review • Describe several ways in which gases enter and exit the atmosphere? Plants remove carbon dioxide from and add oxygen to the air during photosynthesis. Animals remove oxygen from the air when they inhale and add carbon dioxide when they exhale. CO2 is also released as matter decomposes. Water vapor enters the atmosphere through animal exhalations and leaves through precipitation.
Concept Review • Why is air warmer at the top of the stratosphere than at the top of the troposphere? Ozone near the top of the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun.
Concept Review • Describe three ways energy is transferred from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere. Radiation transfers energy through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. Conduction transfers energy through collisions of atoms or molecules. Convection transfers energy through currents caused by differences in density in a fluid.
Concept Review • If there were no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, how would Earth’s temperature be different than it is today? Explain your thinking. Earth would be colder because more of the heat radiated by its surface would escape directly into space.
Concept Review • Why are the poles colder than the equator? The angle of insolation is less at the poles than at the equator.
Concept Review • Describe at least two ways humans increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the air. Deforestation reduces the number of trees available to remove carbon dioxide from the air.
Concept Review 14. Copy and complete the table below to summarize how insolation depends on location and time.
Interpreting Graphs 21. In which container did the material warm faster? Container A
Interpreting Graphs • In which container did the material cool faster? Container A
Interpreting Graphs 23. Which container held the water? Container B, water absorbs heat more slowly than soil.
Interpreting Graphs 24. Did the soil and water both warm the same amount? Why or why not? No; water needs more energy than does soil to raise its temperature the same amount.
Interpreting Graphs 25. The smallest daily temperature ranges at Earth’s surface are less than 1°C. Where are they and why? What sort of location would usually have the largest temperature range? Why? Over oceans because they heat up and cool down more slowly than land; In a city or in a desert, because sand and building