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DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

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DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

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  1. DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis How Proteins Are Made and How Are Your Traits Determined through Gene Expression?

  2. What are Proteins? • Made of small units called amino acids- • building blocks of proteins Organic compounds contain C, H, O, N

  3. What are Proteins continued? • Proteins are made at the ribosomes • Ribosomes read the DNA message on the mRNA and join amino acids to make proteins • Your body can make 12 of the 20 amino acids, but the other 8 essential amino acids must come from your diet • Name food items that are good source of these essential amino acids? (Hint: must come from protein source).

  4. Functions of Proteins • Structural component of body: skin, hair, muscles, bone Enzymes-catalyst proteins used to control the rate of chemical reactions (lower amount of energy needed to start a reaction) Marcia S. Brose, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Hematology/Oncology, The University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit4_1_muscle_functions.html

  5. Functions of Proteins continued • Some proteins are hormones and carry chemical messages; for example insulin, regulates blood sugar • Transport substances such as hemoglobin in RBC that • carries O2 http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20seven • Protect body against disease; antibodies of immune system

  6. SO…how does a cell make proteins anyway? And what does this have to do with DNA and RNA?

  7. Contains deoxyribose sugar Is double stranded Bonds A-T and C-G Never leaves the nucleus Contains ribose sugar Is single stranded Bonds A-U and C-G Can leave the nucleus Let’s Review… DNA vs. RNA

  8. mRNA Amino acid tRNA towing Protein factory Remember there are three types of RNA • mRNA: messengerRNA; carries DNA message to ribosomes • tRNA: transfer RNA; transfers amino acids to ribosomes • rRNA: ribosomalRNA; makes up ribosome-protein factories of the cell

  9. A G A T T C G A G C A C T C A T Role of RNA • While DNA contains the instructions for making proteins in the form of genes… • RNA is the molecule that actually does all the work of putting the protein together

  10. Overall Process of Protein Synthesis (Gene Expression) Transcription Translation mRNA DNA • Transcription • Information in DNA is “transcribed” (rewritten) as a molecule of mRNA Protein • Translation • DNA information on mRNA is “translated” into protein language

  11. Enzymes • There are two different enzymes necessary in making a protein. • What organic compound group do enzymes belong to? • Helicase – breaks hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases • Polymerase – brings new nucleotides and bonds them to existing strands

  12. TRANSCRIPTION- First Process of Protein Synthesis • Occurs in the nucleus • Uses RNA Polymerase • Makes mRNA from DNA template • 60 nucleotides are copied per second • Initiator (start) Codon: AUG

  13. T A A T G C C G A T G C TRANSCRIPTION Steps • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases

  14. TRANSCRIPTION T A • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases A T G C C G A T G C

  15. TRANSCRIPTION T A • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases A T G C C G A T G C

  16. TRANSCRIPTION T A • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases A T G C C G A T G C

  17. TRANSCRIPTION T A • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases A T G C C G A T G C

  18. TRANSCRIPTION T A • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases A T G C C G A T G C

  19. TRANSCRIPTION T A • Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases A T G C C G A T G C

  20. TRANSCRIPTION T A 2. The DNA strands break apart A T G C C G A T G C

  21. A T C G T C TRANSCRIPTION T A G C A G

  22. A T C G T C TRANSCRIPTION T A G C A G

  23. A T C G T C TRANSCRIPTION T A G C A G

  24. A T C G T C TRANSCRIPTION T A G C A G

  25. A T C G T C TRANSCRIPTION T A G C A G

  26. A T C G T C TRANSCRIPTION T A 3. RNA Polymerase brings in mRNA nucleotides and matches them with their DNA complement. G C A G

  27. A T C G T G G C T A G C A

  28. A T C G A A T G C T A G C G

  29. A T C C C G A T G C T A G A G

  30. T A A T G G C C G A T G C C A G

  31. T A A A T G C C G A T G C G C A G

  32. U T A A T G C C G A T G C A G C A G

  33. U T A A A T G G C C C G A A T G G C mRNA DNA

  34. U T A A A T G G C C C G A A T G G C 4.mRNA breaks away from the DNA strand and goes to the ribosome

  35. U T A A A T G G C C C G A A T G G C

  36. U T A A A T G G C C C G A A T G G C

  37. U T A A A T G G C C C G A A T G G C

  38. U T A A A T G G C C C G A A T G G C To Ribosome

  39. T A A T G C C G A T G C 5.The DNA strand is put back together

  40. T A A T G C C G A T G C

  41. T A A T G C C G A T G C

  42. T A A T G C C G A T G C

  43. T A A T G C C G A T G C

  44. T A A T G C C G A T G C

  45. T T A A A A T T G G C C C C G G A A T T G G C C

  46. T A A T Amino Acid G C U G C A A T G G C C U A U A G SUMMARY Transcription Translation Protein DNA mRNA tRNA

  47. Some additional notes about making mRNA… • DNA contains many non-coding regions, also known as “junk DNA” • RNA is not made from the junk DNA • Only 1 of the 2 DNA strands is used to make the mRNA; this strand is called the DNA template • DNA code on the mRNA is read three bases at once, and these three letter base combinations on the mRNA are called codons • Codons determine your genetic code and the traits expressed from protein synthesis