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Avian Influenza 101

Avian Influenza 101

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Avian Influenza 101

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  1. Avian Influenza 101 Prepared by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health May 2006

  2. Goals: • Understand differences in flu types • Recognize relative risk • Discuss food safety aspects • Know how to handle dead birds

  3. 3 Categories of Flu Pandemic flu is NOT bird flu!

  4. 3 Categories of Flu • Pandemic Flu • Does not currently exist • Warnings are based on predictions • An existing virus must mutate first • Human-to-human transmission • Predicted based on historical cycles • About 3 every century

  5. 3 Categories of Flu • Avian Influenza H5N1 • One strain of many • Most active in Asia • Has not been found in North America

  6. 3 Categories of Flu • All other avian influenzas • Many other strains of the virus • May or may not have human health affects • Most do not • Considered a general economic, as well as health, threat to poultry industry • Routine flock testing by industry, USDA and Indiana State Board of Animal Health

  7. What Is Avian Flu? Simple Answer: A Virus

  8. Avian Influenza • Numerous subtypes • HxNx: 16 Hs and 9 Ns • Theoretically 144 combinations • Antigens on the virus surface • Few have human health impact • H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N2 • Most no more than conjunctivitis

  9. Avian Influenza • Why the concern about H5N1? • Unique transmission directly to people • Only with very close contact with birds • No sustained human-to-human transmission • Some similarities to 1918 strain • High death rate among reported cases

  10. Low-Path AI: Key Facts • Does occur periodically in the U.S. • Naturally in wild bird populations • No known human health affects • Is not cause for fear

  11. High Path AI: Key Facts • Not currently found in N. America • Texas, British Columbia: 2004 • Pennsylvania: 1983-84 • H5N1 currently not readily transmissible to humans • No sustained human-human spread • High death rate in birds

  12. HPAI: Clinical Signs • Sudden death without signs • Lack of energy, appetite • Reduced egg production • Swollen head, eyelids, comb, wattles • Discolored purple wattles, comb, legs • Nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing • Report cases to: 866-536-7593

  13. What is Our Risk of H5N1? Indiana is not a high-risk state

  14. H5N1 Risk • U.S. ban on trade with countries with HPAI infection • No live birds, eggs or poultry products • Most U.S. poultry raised indoors • High biosecurity in commercial flocks • Close bird contact is uncommon • In homes

  15. H5N1 Risk • Migratory birds • Waterfowl on international fly-ways • Nationwide testing of wild birds • Pacific rim/Alaska • Indiana is not on a major fly-way • Resident Canada geese are low risk • USDA, DNR targeted surveillance

  16. Can I Get AI From Eating Eggs or Poultry? AI is not a food safety threat

  17. Food Safety • If properly handled, AI is no threat • Wash your hands when handling food • Clean all surfaces in contact with raw meat • Keep foods cold before and after cooking • Do not cross-contaminate • Cook poultry to 170 degrees F • Avian influenza virus is killed at 140 F

  18. Food Safety • Poultry products are inspected • Twice: before and after slaughter • Sick, dead birds are not processed • All flocks are tested for AI • Infected flocks are destroyed without entering the food chain

  19. How Do I Know MyFood Supply Is Safe? Testing and Inspection

  20. Food Supply Safety • U.S. agriculture is different • Commercial flocks raised indoors • Biosecurity prevents wild bird exposure • Poultry raised away from other species • Animals not kept in homes/close human contact • Flocks regularly tested for disease • 75,000+ birds in IN this year

  21. HOGS HOG MANURE

  22. Sleeping with peacock

  23. Food Supply Safety • U.S. food consumption is different • Healthy birds slaughtered under inspection • Cultural food preferences are lower risk • Thorough cooking • Live bird markets uncommon in U.S. • Birds are slaughtered on-the-spot • Indiana has banned traditional markets

  24. What If I Find A Dead Bird? Don’t worry!

  25. Birds Die for Lots of Reasons • Natural deaths • Predators, severe weather, short life span • Accidents • Impacts with power lines, aircraft, buildings • Toxicants • Legal & illegal pest control methods • Spoiled grain and dirty bird feeders • Environmental contamination

  26. Birds Die for Lots of Reasons • Diseases • Most do not have human health affects! • West Nile virus • Blue jays, robins, crows, cardinals, raptors • Call your LOCAL health department • Avianinfluenza • Migratory geese, ducks, swans, shorebirds • Call Wildlife Conflicts Hotline 800-893-4116

  27. Tips for Dead Wild Birds • Do not handle it • Treat it like dog poop! • Wear disposable gloves or place a plastic bag over your hand to pick it up • Place it in a plastic bag • Wash your hands afterward • Dispose of it in your garbage