Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 8 Section 3 The Home Front
The Home Front • The Main Idea • The U.S. mobilized a variety of resources to wage World War I. • Reading Focus • How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort? • How did workers mobilize on the home front? • How did the government try to influence public opinion about the war?
Going to war was extremely expensive, and President Wilson needed to find ways to pay for it. • Regulating Industry Taxes • Congress passed the War Revenue Act of 1917. Loans and Liberty Bonds Mobilizing the Economy
Mobilization of Money • Military Expenses • Expenses for army, navy, credit and materials for allies ran into billions. • $23 billion for the U.S. war effort and $10 billion for war loans to Allies. • Taxes and Loans and Liberty Bonds
Government takes control- War Industries Board • The Overman Act of 1918 helped create the War Industries Board- Bernard M. Baruch • Job-. • During the war.
Mobilization • Army needed to be fed, clothed, equipped and armed
Regulating Fuel • The Fuel Administration • daylight savings time • fuel conservation. Regulating Food • Congress passed the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act. • Herbert Hoover’s Food Administration. • The 1919 Volstead Act. Regulations to Supply U.S. and Allied Troops
Government takes control • Some Private Businesses were taken over. • Council of Defense
Mobilizing the Economy • How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort? • What was the War Revenue Act of 1917? • What was the function of the War Industries Board? • Why do you think it was necessary for the government to set prices and production controls for food and fuel during the war?
Mobilizing the Economy • What steps did the Fuel Administration take to encourage fuel conservation? • How did patriotism play a part in the passage of the 18th Amendment?
Mobilizing Workers • During the war, the profits of many major industrial companies skyrocketed. • This created enormous profits for stockholders • Factory wages also increased, but the cost of food and housing went up. • War demands also led to laborers working long hours in increasingly dangerous conditions. • labor unions. Union membership increased by about 60 percent between 1916 and 1919, and unions boomed as well, with more than 6,000 strikes held during the war.
Women’s War Efforts National War Labor Board Wartime Workers
Government takes control- The Labor Force • United States Employment Service created to fill jobs in vital industries. • A National War Labor Board- created to arbitrate labor disputes.- 8 hour workday and government support of unions.
Influenza Spreads • Three waves of a severe flu epidemic broke out between 1918 and 1919 in Europe and in America. • Of all American troops who died in World War II, half died from influenza. • On the Western Front, crowded and unsanitary trenches helped flu spread among troops, then to American military camps in Kansas and beyond. • This strain of influenza was deadly, killing healthy people within days, and during the month of October 1918, influenza killed nearly 200,000 Americans. • Panicked city leaders halted gatherings, and people accused the Germans of releasing flu germs into the populace. Scientists have Reconstructed the 1918 influenza Virus and found it to be a bird flu that was transmitted directly to humans They analyzed two People who died in 1918 epidemic.. By the time it passed, over 600,000 Americans lost their lives.
Mobilizing Workers • How did workers mobilize on the home front? • What were some of the policies set by the National War Labor Board? • What can you infer from the fact that profits of many major industrial corporations skyrocketed because they sold their products to the federal government? • How did war demands lead to an increase in union membership?
Mobilizing Workers • How did the influenza epidemic affect American life? • How did the influenza epidemic spread?
President Wilson used a number of tactics to gain the support of Americans who had favored neutrality in World War I. Reactions Propaganda • The Committee on Public Information (CPI) appointed reporter and reformer George Creel as its leader. Influencing Public Opinion
Government takes control- Mobilizing Minds • Millions opposed to war- German Americans, Irish Americans, Socialists, Progressives, Pacifists, • Committee on Public Information- The Creel Committee
Prominent Americans such as pacifist reformer Jane Addams and Senator Robert La Follette spoke out against the war. • Addams founded the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. • Wilson’s administration tried to limit public speech about the war. • Espionage Act • Sedition Act • More than 1,000 opponents of war were jailed under those acts • Socialist Party leader Eugene Debs Limiting Antiwar Speech Some Americans Speak Out Legislation Opponents
Opponents Go to the Supreme Court • Schenck v. United States (1919)
Influencing Public Opinion • How did the government try to influence public opinion about the war? • What is propaganda? • How did anti-German feelings affect American life during World War I?