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Nonviolent Methods

Nonviolent Methods

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Nonviolent Methods

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  1. Nonviolent Methods • Gene Sharp, Ch. 3

  2. Nonviolence: 198 Methods • The power of rulers depends directly upon the obedience and cooperation of the population • Nonviolence is an active method • that restricts and severs a leader’s power • and mobilizes one’s own power potential into effective power

  3. Methods • Protest • Noncooperation • Intervention • Acts of Omission • Acts of Commission • Combination of Methods

  4. Protest and Persuasion • Symbolic actions • To educate, show support or disapproval of an action, policy, group, or government • Degree of risk/value is context specific

  5. Noncooperation • People refuse to cooperate with the existing power holders • Degree of disruption depends upon • Importance of activity • Identity and Number of participants • Duration of campaign • Moderate to High Risk/Value

  6. Subtypes of Noncooperation • Social Noncooperation • Boycott social event, Withdrawal from social institutions, Student strike • Economic Noncooperation • Economic Boycotts/Labor Strikes (multiple types of each) • Political Noncooperation • Boycott of elections, civil disobedience

  7. Nonviolent Intervention • Active disruption of normal operations, policies, or system by deliberate interference • Psychological • Physical • Social • Economic • Political • High Risk/Value

  8. Psychological Intervention • Fasting • Self-exposure to the elements • Reverse Trial • Nonviolent Harassment

  9. Physical Intervention • Sit-in • Stand-in • Prayer • Nonviolent raids • Nonviolent interjection (human shield) • Nonviolent occupation Protesters close down Bangkok Airport

  10. Social Intervention • Overloading of facilities • Speak-in • New social patterns • Alternative social and communication systems

  11. Economic Intervention • Stay-in Strike • Nonviolent Land Seizure • Defiance of Blockades • Alternate markets • Alternate transportation

  12. Political Intervention • Overloading administrative systems • Disclosing identity of secret agents • Seeking imprisonment • Civil disobedience of “neutral” law • Parallel Government

  13. Failure • Misunderstanding of power dynamics/ conflict • Misunderstanding of nonviolence • Lack of strategic plan • Lack of unity and focus • Poor leadership • Loss of momentum

  14. Requirements for Success • Advance Strategic Preparation • Factors to consider: • Accurate understanding of power dynamics and situation • Organization and Development • Strategic Engagement • Flexibility, Creativity, and Continuity

  15. Requirements for Success • Articulation of a Grand Strategy (ultimate goal) • Identification of prerequisite goals (stair-steps) • Develop strategic campaigns using tactics that will optimize success • Strike at opponents vulnerabilities • Utilize resister’s strengths • Can be used in combination with other methods for enhanced efficacy http://optimumperformancetechnologies.blogspot.com/2007_09_09_archive.html

  16. Success • Partial-Success is very common • Short-lived Victories occur when resisters fail to: • Consolidate their gains • Resist new threats • Follow-through

  17. Mechanisms for Achieving Success • Conversion • Win-Win situation • Opponent has a change of heart • Opponent chooses to accept the claims and conditions of the resistance movement • Most rarely achieved

  18. Mechanisms for Achieving Success • Accommodation • Compromise • Usually focused on specific issues each side can agree to without “losing face” • Common

  19. Mechanisms for Achieving Success • Nonviolent Coercion • Change occurs against the opponent’s will because their needed sources of power has been seriously weakened or severed • The opponent is no longer an effective, functioning leader • Common

  20. Mechanisms for Achieving Success • Disintegration • Noncooperation and Defiance are so overwhelming and strong, the opponent’s regime falls apart • There isn’t even anyone left with sufficient power to surrender • Less Common

  21. Historical Awareness • Learn from past mistakes • Learn from past successes • Build upon previously developed methods and tactics (don’t need to reinvent the wheel)! http://thefitnesstutor.com/

  22. What is “Success”? • How does one measure victory? • Achievement of Goals • Resolution of Initiating Conflict (both or conquering parties?) • Total Casualties (Military/Civilian, Deaths/Injuries-- physical/psychological) • Time • Long-Term Effects • Public Perception