Interest Grabber Plants Make the World Go Round • Life as we know it today could not exist without plants. Plants provide us with many essential items other than food. • 1.With your partner, list five items you use daily that are byproducts of plants. • Should have included Oxygen, food, fruit, wood, and water. • 2.With your partner, list three items that plants must get from animals—either directly or indirectly. • should include some of the following items: water, carbon dioxide, nutrients (from decaying animals), soil.
22-1 Plants Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. That carries out photosynthesis using green pigment chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.
Plant life cycle • Has two alternating phases a diploid (2N) and a haploid (N) known as alternation of generation. • Diploid phase is known as a sporophyte (meoisis) or spore producing plant. • Haploid phase is know as gametophyte (mitosis) or gamete-producing plant
MEIOSIS Haploid Diploid FERTILIZATION Generalized Plant Life Cycle Section 22-1 Spores(N) Figure 22-2 Pg 552 Gametophyte Plant (N) Sporophyte Plant (2N) Sperm(N) Eggs(N)
Looking at figure 22-2 Answer the question below. • Which generation of a plant is diploid and which is haploid? 2. Which generation produces gametes? • What does the sporophyte produce? • What process produces spores? The sporophyte is diploid and the gametophyte is haploid The gametophyte Spores Meoisis
What Plants Need To Survive 1. Water and minerals for the survival of their cells 2. Gas exchange to support cellular respiration 3. Movement of water and nutrients to carry upward from the soil to the leaves. 4. Sunlight for photosynthesis
Early plants • The first plants evolved from algae Algae Plants • Study the picture above how are green algae and plants alike? Bothhave chlorophyll, stores carbohydrates, and have cell walls.
Floweringplants Cone-bearingplants Ferns andtheir relatives Flowers; SeedsEnclosed in Fruit Mosses andtheir relatives Seeds Water-Conducting(Vascular) Tissue Green algaeancestor Figure 22–6 (Pg. 554) Plant Groups What are the four Main groups of plants? What do mosses and their relatives lack that all other plants have? What do mosses and their relative lack that all other plants have? Mosses, Ferns, Cone-bearing, and Flower-bearing plants Vascular Tissue How do the seeds of flowering plants differ from the seeds of cone-bearing plants? Flowering plants have seeds enclosed in fruit
Bryophytes • Are non-vascular plants-lacking vascular tissue that does not conduct water or nutrients. • Depends on water for reproduction producing sperm that must swim in the water to fertilize a egg • Absorbs water by osmosis • Includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts 22-2
Page 557 Capsule Sporophyte Stalk Stemlikestructure Gametophyte Leaflikestructure Mosses • Most common bryophytes • Grown in areas that are abundant in water • Can survive in polar regions • Contain rhizoids-are long, thin cells that anchor them into the ground and absorb water and minerals from surrounding soil. • Water moves from cell to cell by the rhizoids. Rhizoids
Protonema(young gametophyte)(N) Spores(N) Malegametophyte Femalegametophyte Maturesporophyte(2N) Capsule(sporangium) Antheridia Sperm(N) Archegonia Gametophyte(N) Youngsporophyte(2N) Zygote(2N) Sperm(N) Gametophyte(N) Egg(N) Figure 22–11 The Life Cycle of a Moss Section 22-2 Haploid (N) Diploid (2N) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION
22-3 Seedless Vascular Plants • Established a evolutionary transport system • Tracheids is a new type of cell specialized to conduct water. • These tracheids was the key cell in xylem a transport subsystem that carries water upwards from the roots to every part of the plants. • Phloem transports nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. • Both of vascular tissue the xylem and the phloem can move fluids through the plant body even against gravity.
Seedless Vascular plant • Club mosses • Horsetails • Ferns-have true vascular tissue, strong roots, and creeping underground stems called rhizomes and large leaves called fronds -can live in areas with little light and are mostly wet or seasonally wet.
Interest Grabber • Eat Your Seeds! • A seed contains both the embryo of a plant and a food supply for that plant. If you have eaten corn, you’ve eaten a seed. Do you like hamburger buns with sesame seeds on them? That’s another kind of seed you’ve eaten. • After you answer the following questions, exchange papers with a partner to see how many of the same seeds you listed. • 1. In addition to sesame seeds, what are some other seeds that are found in or on top of loaves of bread? • Most students will list poppy seeds and caraway seeds. In addition, some “multi-grain” breads contain millet and flax seeds. • 2. In addition to corn, what are some other seeds that are eaten as “vegetables”? • Peas and all types of beans, such as lima beans, black beans, kidney beans, and so on • 3. What are some seeds that you have eaten as snack foods? • Sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, peanuts • 4. What types of nutrients are found in seeds? • Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats • Do seeds have the same nutritional value for plants as they do for animals? Explain your answer. • Yes. Plants and animals use the same nutrients to live.
Countdown to TAKS Choose the best answer. Leon tosses two number cubes without looking at them. A friend tells Leo that the total came out to be an odd number. What is the probability that the total is 7? F. 1/6 G. 2/9 H. 1/3 J. 1/2
Countdown to TAKS • F Incorrect • The probability of rolling a 7 is 1/6 without taking into account whether the number is odd or even. • G Incorrect; How many ways can you come up with a 7? • J Incorrect; make a chart showing the results for each die. Count up how many ways come up 7. • H Correct There are 6 combinations of numbers that equal 7: (1,6), (2,5), (3,4), (6,1), (5,2), (4,3). There are 6 X 6 = 36 possible combinations but only 18 are odd. The probability of the odd total being 7 is 6/18=1/3.
22-4 Seed Plants • Are divided into two groups gymnosperms and angiosperms. • Gymnosperms bear their seed directly on the surface of cones • Angiosperms called flowering plants, bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed.
Compare/Contrast Table Section 22-4 Comparing Features of Seed Plants Feature Seeds Reproduction Examples Gymnosperms Angiosperms Bear their seeds on cones Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes Bear their seeds within flowers Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Grasses, flowering trees and shrubs, wildflowers, cultivated flowers
Seeded Plants Reproduction • Seeded plants have adaptations allowing them to reproduce without water. 1. Seeds 2. Pollen 3. Cones and Flowers
Seed coat Seed Embryo Wing Storedfood supply 1. SeedsFigure 22–19 The Structure of a Seed Section 22-4 B The Structure of a Seed is the embryo (in its early stages of development) of a plant that is encased in seed coat that is its protective covering and surrounded by a food supply
2. Pollen • Pollen is the male gametophyte contained in tiny structures called a pollen grain. Pollen is then carried by the wind to a female reproductive structure known as pollination.
3. Cones and Flowers • The gametophytes of seed plants grow and mature within sporophyte structures called cones. Which are the seed bearing structures of gymnosperms, and flowers.
Cone BearersGymnosperms meaning “naked seed”; plants that reproduce with seeds that are exposed. 4 Main types of cone bearers • Gnetophytes found in desert environments • Cycads palm like plants the produce large cones • Ginkgoes common when dinosaurs existed • Conifers mainly your Christmas trees
Cycads Gnetophytes Conifers Ginkgoes
22-5 Flowering PlantsAngiosperms (meaning enclosed seed) develop a unique reproductive organs known as flowers containing ovaries, which surround and protect the seed • How to classify Angiosperms • Monocots and Dicots • Woody and Herbaceous • Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials (life span).
Single cotyledon Two cotyledons Parallel veins Branched veins Floral parts often in multiples of 3 Floral parts often in multiplesof 4 or 5 Vascularbundlesscattered throughout stem Vascularbundlesarranged ina ring Fibrous roots Taproot 1. Monocots and Dicots comparison-Monocots have one seed leaf -Dicots have two seed leafs-Resulting in a cotyledon which is the first leaf produces from the embryo of a seed plant. Section 22-5 Monocots Dicots Seeds Leaves Flowers Stems Roots
2.Woody and Herbaceous • Divided into two groups according to their stems • Woodiness –are primarily made of plants with cells having thick walls that support the plant body (examples include grapes and ivys). • Herbaceous- are stems that are smooth and nonwoody (examples include roses and blueberries).
Classifying angiosperms3. Life Span Section 22-5 Plants are categorized as Annuals Perennials Biennials that completetheir life cycle in that completetheir life cycle in that completetheir life cycle in 1 growingseason More than2 years 2 years
Page 580 Monocots Dicots Single cotyledon Two cotyledons Seeds Branched veins Leaves Parallel veins Floral parts often in multiples of 3 Floral parts often in multiplesof 4 or 5 Flowers Vascularbundlesscattered throughout stem Vascularbundlesarranged ina ring Stems Roots Fibrous roots Taproot