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T what title would you give the following picture A – Who is this picture for?

T what title would you give the following picture A – Who is this picture for?

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T what title would you give the following picture A – Who is this picture for?

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  1. Challenge 19-4 • T what title would you give the following picture • A – Who is this picture for? • C – Are there any words or phrases? • O – Are there any symbols? What do you see? What are the objects? • S – What is the author trying to get you to believe, understand?

  2. Chapter 12The Civil War and Reconstruction: 1861-1876

  3. The South Becomes an Agricultural Economy

  4. The Rise of Cotton Production and the Growth of Slavery

  5. The Growing Slave Population in Texas, 1825-1860

  6. Slavery in Texas • Slavery was legal in Texas and most of the South – Southerners believed it supported the economy • Most Northerners opposed slavery. They believed it was immoral (wrong for one to own another).

  7. Facts About Slavery • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, a machine that removed cotton seeds from the fiber, made cotton very profitable. Created a demand for slaves. • Avg. price of slave = $600, if skilled = more than $2000 • Most could not afford slaves • Slaves regarded as property; could be bought, sold, or rented • Some treated slaves reasonably well, others were very cruel (beatings, poor food, etc.) • Usually 6-day work week with Sundays off; sunrise to sunset workday

  8. Facts About Slavery • Children born of slaves were slaves • Families torn apart by slave trade • Religion and music were key elements of culture; religion offered comfort and hope; music allowed expression of sorrow & hope for better life • Not many rebellions – fear of punishment to selves and others • Resistance: 1) most TX runaways fled to Mexico, 2) work slowly, 3) break or damage property

  9. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote this book. • It is about a slave named Tom treated cruelly by a brutal slaveholder, and a slave woman named Eliza escaping to freedom on the Underground Railroad.

  10. Stowe’s novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin had an impact on the abolitionist movement leading up to the Civil War.

  11. Kansas-Nebraska Act • In 1854, this act gave the people of these territories the right to decide if they would allow slavery (popular sovereignty). • It was supported by most Southerners and created more division apart from the North on this issue.

  12. Issues That Divided the Nation

  13. State’s Rights • The idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government. • Most Southerners (including Texans), favored state’s rights. • Southerners believed the federal government went beyond their power in trying to limit the spread of slavery.

  14. Dred Scott • 1857 Supreme Court case where a slave sued for his freedom on the basis that he lived in a free state. • Court ruled that slaves were not citizens, and the case was lost, angering abolitionists.

  15. What impact did the Dred Scott case have?

  16. Texas Secedes • Secede: withdraw from the Union • Governor Sam Houston was a Unionist (did not want to secede) • Abraham Lincoln was elected U.S. President in 1860, further increasing the South’s desire to split the nation. • South Carolina was the 1st to secede. Other states soon followed, including Texas (7th) forming the Confederate States of America.

  17. Texas Secedes

  18. Texas Secedes • Sam Houston refused to sign an oath to the Confederacy and was removed from office as governor of Texas

  19. Dividing the Nation

  20. Fast Facts • Union Leader – Ulysses S. Grant • Confederate Leader – Robert E. Lee • Confederate President – Jefferson Davis • 1st battle – Ft. Sumter • Costliest battle – Gettysburg • 384 major battles (10,500 conflicts) • Lasted from April 12, 1861 – April 9, 1865 (Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court House)

  21. Fast Facts • Confederate capital: Richmond, VA • U.S. said secession was illegal • South said they freely joined & could freely leave • Advantage North – outnumbered South 4 to 1 in men of fighting age • Advantage North – controlled factories and transportation • Advantage South – generals; know the land

  22. CIVIL WAR - BEGINNING • Both sides believe war will be over in a matter of months • Both sides call for volunteers • Men of fighting age: (18-45) • North 4 million • South 1 million

  23. Fast Facts • Some Texans (Anglo, Black, and Mexican) fought for the Union • Union blockade: shortage of supplies for South (South used blockade runners) • Relied on Texas farms for corn & wheat to feed Confed. army; also made uniforms • Went w/out coffee, sugar, paper, & other items

  24. Strengths and Weaknesses of the North and the South • The North had a higherpopulation, greater factory production, more railroad mileage, and more farmland than the South. • The South had higher cotton production than the North. • Which had more strengths?

  25. TEXAS CONTRIBUTIONS • 70,000served in Confederacy • Most serve in Texas • Arkansas, Louisiana • Some as far away as Virginia • 2,000 serve in Union

  26. CIVIL WAR - LATER • Volunteers not sufficient • Both sides begin conscriptions (draft) • Age limits change as war goes on • (18-30) becomes (17-45) • South (Confederacy) • Exempt if own >15 slaves • Can hire someone to take place

  27. UNIONISTS IN TEXAS • Most live in Northern & Western part of TX • The “Great Hanging” • Gainesville, TX • 1862, 150 unionist arrested for treason • 40 hanged • Nueces Massacre • 1862, 65 neutral Germans try to leave TX • 20 die during clash with Confederates near Nueces River • 9 executed

  28. UNION STRATEGY

  29. Texans Battle West of the Mississippi River

  30. CIVIL WAR BATTLES - TEXAS

  31. CIVIL WAR – MAJOR BATTLES

  32. The War Ends • Surrender at Appomotox • Union General Ulysses S. Grant trapped Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Petersburg, Virginia • Union General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia • Grant accepted Lee’s surrender at the Appomtox Court House on April 9, 1865 • Battle at Palmito Ranch • Some Texas Confederates refused to give up the war • On May 12, 1865, Union Colonel Theodore H. Barnett attacked Confederate forces at Palmito Ranch • The Confederates counterattacked, forcing Barret to retreat • Despite this victory, the Texas Confederates received orders to disband their armies

  33. Juneteenth • June 19, 1865 Texas slaves finally got word they were free • Word was brought by General Gordon Granger of the Union Army • Celebrated as a state holiday

  34. CIVIL WAR COSTS • UNION • 110,000 killed in battle (24%) • 225,000 die from disease • $6 Billion • CONFEDERACY • 94,000 killed in battle (23%) • 164,000 die from disease • $2 Billion

  35. Deaths in American Wars • Civil War 618,000 • World War II 405,000 • World War I 112,000 • Vietnam War 58,000 • Korean War 54,000 • Mexican War 13,000 • Revolution 4,000 • Spanish-American War 2,000 • War of 1812 2,000

  36. Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination • Shot on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes Booth • Died one day later • Booth shot and killed April 26

  37. The Civil War

  38. The Civil War Amendments

  39. Reconstruction Plans

  40. Successes and Failures of Reconstruction

  41. Reconstruction in Texas

  42. Congress Reacts to Black Codes • Black codes – laws passed by southern states that severely limited the rights of freedmen • How did black codes affect freedmen? • Black codes granted some rights. African Americans could marry legally and own some property • Black codes kept freedmen from gaining political and economic power. They forbade freedmen to vote, own guns, or serve on juries • In some states, African Americans could work only as servants or farm laborers. In others, they had to sign contracts for a year’s work • How did Congress react to black codes? • Angered by black codes, Republicans charged that Johnson’s lenient Reconstruction plan had encouraged the codes • Republicans were also angered by southern white violence against freedmen

  43. The End of Reconstruction • Economic Changes • Cotton, wheat and corn production increased, due to the expansion of the railroad • Texans developed more industries, producing textiles, iron, and other goods • New Labor System • The sharecropper system replaced the system of slave labor after the Civil War • Landowners assumed all the housing and production costs in exchange for the sharecropper working the land • Sharecroppers gave half the value of their crop to the landowner

  44. The Constitution of 1876 • Cut the governor’spower to appoint officers • Limited elected leaders to two-year terms • Gave all males, including African Americans, the right to vote • Required that votersapprove any changes to the constitution • Remains the basic law of Texas to this DAY

  45. Dividing the Nation

  46. OUT • T _what title would you give the following picture • A – Who is this political cartoon for? • C – Are there any words or phrases? • O – Are there any symbols? What do you see? • S – What is the author trying to get you to believe?

  47. OUT • T _what title would you give the following picture • A – Who is this political cartoon for? • C – Are there any words or phrases? • O – Are there any symbols? What do you see? • S – What is the author trying to get you to believe?

  48. OUT • T _what title would you give the following picture • A – Who is this political cartoon for? • C – Are there any words or phrases? • O – Are there any symbols? What do you see? • S – What is the author trying to get you to believe?

  49. Weapons of the Civil War

  50. Colt Revolver