Best Pedagogical Practices of E-Learning for Building Motivational and Interactive Communities Curt Bonk, Indiana University (and CourseShare.com) firstname.lastname@example.org http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk
Timeout!!! What do you do with technology in New Zealand today? ____________________ What about 10 years ago??? ___________________
Asynchronous Possibilities 1. Link to peers and mentors. 2. Expand and link to alternative resources. 3. Involve in case-based reasoning. 4. Connect students in field to the class. 5. Provide e-mail assistance. 6. Bring experts to teach at any time. 7. Provide exam preparation. 8. Foster small group work. 9. Engage in electronic discussions & writing. 10. Structure electronic role play.
Pedagogical Actualities • Teacher-Created Cases • Student-Created Cases • Online Mentoring • Starter-Wrapper Discussions • Field Reflections • Reading Reactions • Debates (Teacher and Student Created) • Critical Friend Activities • Web Buddies • Synchronous Group Problem Solving
E-Learning Vision and Goals? • Making connections through cases. • Appreciating different perspectives. • Students as teachers. • Greater depth of discussion. • Fostering critical thinking online. • Interactivity online.
Brains Before and After E-learning After Before And when use synchronous and asynchronous tools
Tasks Overwhelm Confused on Web Too Nice Due to Limited Share History Lack Justification Hard not to preach Too much data Communities not easy to form Train and be clear Structure time/dates due Develop roles and controversies Train to back up claims Students take lead role Use Email Pals; set times and amounts Embed Informal/Social E-LearningProblems and Solutions
Shy open up online Minimal off task Delayed collab more rich than real time; discussion extends Students can generate lots of info Minimal disruptions Extensive E-Advice Excited to Publish Use async conferencing Create social tasks Use Async for debates; Sync for help, office hours (use both to reflect) Structure generation and force reflection/comment Foster debates/critique Find Practitioners/Experts Ask Permission E-LearningBenefits and Implications
Selecting Distance Learning Instructors(Karen Mantyla, July 2000, Learning Circuits; author of Distance Learning: A Step-by-Step Guide for Trainers’ QuietPower@aolcom) • Exude enthusiasm • Be learner-centered • Be flexible and willing to learn new skills • Be adaptable to student and team needs • Display a sense of humor • Learn new technologies and practice or rehease delivery • Willing to create and use interactive tasks
Tips for SuccessUniv of Missouri Extension, Distance Learning Design Center (DLDC)http://dldc-courses.ext.missouri.edu/dldcwww/dlplanning/ • Give pts for participation & contribution. • Set time limits for task, feedback, etc. • Set quantity for regular participation. • Prompt and remind frequently. • Summarize discussion occasionally. • Encourage to answer each other’s q’s.
Steps in Building an Electronic Community(Palloff & Pratt, 1999) • Clearly define the purpose of the group. • Create a distinctive gathering place for group. • Promote effective leadership from within. • Define norms and a clear code of conduct. • Allow for a range of member roles. • Allow for and facilitate subgroups. • Allow members to resolve their own disputes.
Online Strategies(Karen Lazenby, University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001) • Limit lecturing online—promote self-directed learning • Set clear rules for posting and interaction • Explain tasks and overlooked info. • Let learners synthesize key points. • Publish best work of students (with permission) • Involve participation from outside experts
Changing Role of the TeacherThe Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • From oracle to guide and resource provider • From providers of answers to expert questioners • From solitary teacher to member of team • From total control of teaching environment to sharing as a fellow student • From provider of content to designer of learning experiences.
Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86) • Ability to engage the learner (2.84) • Ability to provide direction and support (2.82) • Skills in online listening (2.76) • Ability to use email effectively (2.70) • Ability to motivate online learners (2.66) • Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66) • Skills in effective online questioning (2.65)
Type: Idea Generation Deepen Engagement Interest Groups Debating Market Research Resource Recog. Exam Preparation Moderator Action: Emphasize BS rules Challenge, test, share Summarize, current info Moderate, lobby, detail Ask key q’s, follow-up Offer feedback, prizes Post q’s, facilitate discuss Online Techniques & Moderator ActionGilly Salmon, The Open University Business School
Knowledge Sharing & ConstructionE-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan Page) • Be an equal participant in the conference. • Provide sparks or interesting comments. • Avoid directives and right answers. • Acknowledge all contributions. • Weave, summarize, and model discussion. • Support others for e-moderator role. • Reward knowledge construction & accomplishments. • Be tolerant of twists in the discussion.
Managerial Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator) • Distribute lists of participants • Provide timely administrative info—books, enrollment, counseling, etc. • Change procedures that are not working • Change misplaced subject headings • Decisively end discussion sessions • Don’t overload
Pedagogical Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator) • Don’t expect too much/thread • Draw attention to conflicting views • Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of comments yields silence) • Request responses within set time • Maintain non-authoritarian style • Promote private conversations
Dennen’s Research on Nine Online Courses • 9 case studies of online classes using asynchronous discussion • Topics: sociology, history, communications, writing, library science, technology, counseling • Range of class size: 15 - 106 • Level: survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate • Tools: custom and commercial • Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas
Little or no feedback given Always authoritative Kept narrow focus of what was relevant Created tangential discussions Only used “ultimate” deadlines Provided regular qual/quant feedback Participated as peer Allowed perspective sharing Tied discussion to grades, other assns. Used incremental deadlines Poor Instructors Good Instructors
Web-Based Resources(Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999) • URL Postings in Dynamic Database (for inquiry) • Electronic Discussions (to see ideas unfold) • Debates (submit arguments in a public space) • Personal Reflections (encourage to rebut/refute) • Concept Maps (see relationships) • Nominal Group Process (to gain consensus) • Survey (can aggregate student responses)
Collaborative and Constructivist Web Tasks(McLoughlin & Oliver, 1999; Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999) • Apprenticeship: Q&A; Ask an Expert (chats & asynchronous discussion). • Case-Based and Simulated Learning: Exchange remote views; enact events online. • Active Learning: Design Web pages and project databases. • Reflective/Metacognitive Learning: Reflect in online journals, bulletin boards • Experiential Learning: Post (articulate ideas) to discussion groups • Authentic Learning: PBL, search current databases
Pedagogical Techniques of CMC(Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication) • Collective databases • Informal socializing (online cafes) • Seminars (read before going online) • Public tutorials • Peer counseling • Simulations, games, and role plays • Forum • Email interviews • Symposia or speakers on a theme • The notice board (class announcements)
Framework for Pedagogical CMC Techniques(Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication) • One-alone Techniques: Online journals, online databases, interviews, online interest groups. • One-to-one Techniques: Learning contracts, internships, apprenticeships. • One-to-many Techniques: Lectures, symposiums, skits. • Many-to-many Techniques: Debates, simulations, games, case studies, discussion groups, brainstorming, Delphi techniques, nominal group process, forums, group projects.
Considerations: The EventJennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March) • Log on early; students come 15 minutes early. • Do tech checks of microphones (sound check). • Check to see if students brought needed items • Welcome to the session/class; explain goals; ask for feedback on goals. • Vary instructional strategies; max interactivity • Make it visual—color, sound, animation • A “Do Not Disturb” sign & be near a restroom; pitcher of water
Pedagogical Tips(Bonk 1998) • Test system with immediate task • Build peer interactivity • Embed choices (avatars, tasks, etc.) • Simplify (everything!!!) • Embed peer and portfolio fdbk tools • Offer early feedback • Link to prior work (legacies)
What do we need??? FRAMEWORKS!
1. Reflect on Extent of Integration:The Web Integration Continuum Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources Level 4: Course Resources on the Web Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others ====================================== Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative
2. Reflect on Interactions:Matrix of Web Interactions(Cummings, Bonk, & Jacobs, in press) Instructor to Student: syllabus, notes, feedback to Instructor: Course resources, syllabi, notes to Practitioner: Tutorials, articles, listservs Student to Student: Intros, sample work, debates to Instructor: Voting, tests, papers, evals. to Practitioner: Web links, resumes Practitioner to Student:Internships, jobs, fieldtrips to Instructor: Opinion surveys, fdbk, listservs to Practitioner: Forums, listservs
3. Models of Technology in Education (Dennen, 1999) • Enhancing the Curriculum • computers for extra activities: drill and practice CD-ROMs; tool; intelligent tutor • Extending the Curriculum • transcend classroom and engage in activities not possible without it: Online class conferences, Cross-University Collaboration, CSCL. • Transforming the Curriculum • allowing learners to construct knowledge bases and resources in a community setting regardless of physical location or time and join a learning community.
1. Safe Lrng Community 2. Foster Engagement 3. Give Choice 4. Facilitate Learning 5. Offer Feedback 6. Apprentice Learning 7. Use Recursive Tasks 8. Use Writing & Reflection 9. Build On Web Links 10. Be Clear & Prompt Help 11. Evaluate Dimensionally 12. Personalize in Future 4. Reflect on Environment:How to Be Learner-Centered on the Web (Bonk & Cummings, 1998)
5. New Theories • Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most effective in authentic, or real world, contexts with problems that allow students to generate their own solution paths (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). • Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The constructivist argues that the child's mind actively constructs relationships and ideas; hence, meaning is derived from negotiating, generating, and linking concepts within a community of peers (Harel & Papert, 1991).
Smartweb Activities Weekly Chapter Activ Web Link Suggestions Personal Profiles Student Portfolios Feedback on Portfolios Class Picture Links to Prior Semesters Web Assignment Posting Chart Sociocultural Link Connect to Experience Push to Explore & Res. Build Intersubjectivity Dynamic Assessment Scaffolding within ZPD Learning Community Modeling and Legacy Visual Overview of Smartweb Activity 5a. Smartweb Activities and Sociocultural Link (Bonk, 1998)
COW Activity Starter-Wrapper Disc Field Reflections Café Latte, Int’l Café Field Observ Case Disc (& samples cases) Small Schools Small Grp Whole Class Disc Service Teaching Volunteer Explorations Sociocultural Link Recip Teach & Dialogue Apprentices Learning Intersubjectivity Scaffolded & Authentic (assist in learning) Build ZPD & Negotiate. Learning Community Context for Apprent. Student Choice 5b. COW Activities and Sociocultural Links (Bonk, 1998)
6. Four Key Hats of Instructors: • Technical—do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work? • Managerial—Do students understand the assignments and course structure? • Pedagogical—How are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking? • Social—What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed? • Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.
Personal Learning Trainer • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them through materials and networks, identify relevant materials and advisors and ways to move forward (Mason, 1998; Salmon, 2000).
Online Concierge • To provide support and information on request (perhaps a map of the area…) (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
E-Police • While one hopes you will not call yourself this nor find the need to make laws and enforce them, you will need some Code of Practice or set procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
Other Hats • Weaver—linking comments/threads • Tutor—individualized attention • Participant—joint learner • Provocateur—stir the pot (& calm flames) • Observer—watch ideas and events unfold • Mentor—personally apprentice students • Community Organizer—keep system going
Assistant Devil’s advocate Editor Expert Filter Firefighter Facilitator Gardener Helper Lecturer Marketer Mediator Priest Promoter Still More Hats
7. Online Mentoring and Assistance Online Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and assistance(Bonk & Kim, 1998; Tharp, 1993; Bonk et al., 2001)
1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement:"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you could join us..."
2. Questioning:"What is the name of this concept...?," "Another reason for this might be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast to this might be...,""What else might be important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem here...?," "How is this related to...?,“, "Can you justify this?"
3. Direct Instruction:"I think in class we mentioned that...," Chapter ‘X’ talks about...," "Remember back to the first week of the semester when we went over ‘X’ which indicated that..."
4. Modeling/Examples:"I think I solved this sort of problem once when I...," "Remember that video we saw on ‘X’ wherein ‘Y’ decided to...," "Doesn't ‘X’ give insight into this problem in case ‘Z’ when he/she said..."