CANON A body of writing recognized by authority (literary critics and scholars) deemed suitable for academic study.
Colonialism • The exploitation of a weaker country by a stronger one. It includes the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country. It is a feature of European expansion since sixteenth century, as Western powers took control of people and territory across much of globe. Last wave in Africa, late-nineteenth century. South American colonies gained independence in nineteenth century, African and Asian colonies after WW II. • Frequently, the study of colonialism is divided into settler and forcibly colonized countries. • ex. Nigeria would be a colonized country, and Canada would be a settler country.
Colonization • The act of colonizing, or the establishment of colonies such as "the British colonization of Africa."
Imperialism • The national policy of conquest of other regions or peoples for the purpose of extending political and economic control and of exploiting the resources of other regions or people.
Systems of Discourse • The language and culture of the homeland—Britain and the English language—are imposed on the colony. In turn, these discourses become the measurement of “reality.” • ex. The speaker in “A Far Cry from Africa” is unsure which language best represents his colonial situation.
Postcolonial Criticism • Scholars used to use the term Commonwealth criticism, which referred to the study of texts produced by members of former British colonies. • However, the term has its difficulties. For example, , there is nothing “common” or “shared” about the “wealth” in the colonies. Colonization meant to increase the wealth of the ruling country. • Since the 1980s, the terms "Commonwealth" and "Third World" that were used to describe the literature of Europe's former colonies have become rare.
Postcolonial Criticism • Scholars used to use the term Commonwealth criticism, which referred to the study of texts produced by members of former British colonies. • However, the term has its difficulties. For example, there is nothing “common” or “shared” about the “wealth” in the colonies. Colonization meant to increase the wealth of the ruling country. • Since the 1980s, the terms "Commonwealth" and "Third World" that were used to describe the literature of Europe's former colonies have become rare.
Postcolonial Criticism • In a very general sense, postcolonial criticism is the study of the interactions between European nations and colonies following the establishment of independence in a colony. The European empire is said to have held sway over more than 85% of the rest of the globe by the time of the First World War, having consolidated its control over several centuries. • The sheer extent and duration of the European empire and its disintegration after the Second World War have led to widespread interest in postcolonial literature and criticism in our own times.
Reverse Colonization • The act of colony or former colony member making the reverse voyage to the home of the colonizer. • Sometimes the term is related to issues of immigration
The British Arrive in India, 1612The East India Tea Company is established in 1640British meets first organized resistance in 1757
The Reasons Behind the Rise of the British Empire • Trade—British citizens were becoming accustomed to the silk, fur, spices, tea, and other item imported from the colonies. India in particular was a major source. • Political influence and power as other European nations also vied for colonies. For example, the Dutch in Indonesia • Slavery • Religious conversion of the “heathens” and the spread of Christianity
The Durbar: A Parade and Celebration of the Grandeur and Political Might of the British in India
Gandhi helps negotiates independence through his “Quit India” campaign, asking the entire country to engage in civil disobedience by refusing to enter WWII, and to not retaliate if invaded.
Jawaharlal Nehru and his Five Year Plans that Nataraj and his friends are always discussing • British educated lawyer from wealthy family • Formed the first independent Indian government in 1947 • Prime Minister for 18 years • Fascinated by Soviet Union’s Five Year Plans • Wanted Indian economy to be a mixture of capitalism and state-owned operations. • Neutralism in Foreign Affairs—you shouldn’t be a superpower to have a seat at the table • The “Plans” focused on industrial self-reliance and agricultural efficiency