Nature of Rhetoric(Aristotle) counterpart (ANTISTROPHE) to dialectic and ethics
BODY (MATERIAL) SOUL (IMMATERIAL) psyche, anima, pneuma ARISTOTLE'S LAYOUT OF THE PERSON
Intuitive reason (nous) Grasp first principles Human Nature Philosophic Reason (Sophia) Demonstration from first principles Theoretical reason Scientific Knowledge (Episteme) Necessary (certain) Production Techne (art) Calculative Reason (deals With contingent) (Pragma) (doxa) Action Practical Wisdom (Phronesis) Animal Nature Feelings Desires Vegetable Nature Nutrition Growth
Rhetoric--ethics Rhetor: “The good man speaking well” Quintillion
Nature of Rhetoric(Aristotle) Definition: faculty of observing, in any situation, the available means of persuasion.
OFFICES • Perspectives • In general, the canon was present in the Rhetorica, but the form in which we know it is largely the result of later rhetoricians; particularly Cicero
INVENTION topoi • common (universal) possible, impossible, past fact, future fact, size. • special (associated w/ special subjects such as ethics and politics.) lines of argument (methods of reasoning) • more or less, • opposites, • etc.
stasis (stock issue--turning point) Aristotle (III 17) 1. Was the act committed? 2. Did the act cause harm? • Was the harm more or less than alleged? 4. Was the act justified?
Hermagoras of Temnos conjecture • from a consideration of the motive of accused • from a consideration of the character of accused 3. from a consideration of the act itself (signs and general evidence pointing to the accused) Definition (murder, theft, treason, etc.) Quality 1. pleas of justification (no harm admitted) 2. counterproposition (harm admitted but...) 3. counterplea (claim of benefit rendered) 3. shifting of blame to a person or circumstance capable of liability to a person or circumstance incapable of liability objection (to the trial on procedural grounds)
Disposition Macrostructure • Proem (introduction) • Statement (thesis) • proof (body) • epilogue (conclusion) Microstructure • statement, • proof
Style Elevated, middle, low virtues: Clarity use common words but put them together so the whole bears a subtle air of strangeness. Avoid using elevated language when young and for talking about trivial matters use metaphors and similes (tropes, figures of speech & thought later) Appropriateness conveys the states of feeling (pathe) describes character (ethe) and is proportionate to the subject matter. Purity (hellenism) Dignity (weight)(opposite is conciseness) Vices: Frigidities overcompounding (beggar-poet-toady) using archaic or dialect words (the baleful criminal) Overwriting with long, untimely or crowded epithets (not laws,m but laws the rules of states [we the people] Inappropriate metaphors (events fresh and full of blood)
Cicero on Style virtues clarity, correctness, appropriateness, embellishment (tropes and figures of thought and speech)
Memory mnemonics--association with topics (places)
Delivery • Delivery can be treated scientifically--has to do with management of the voice to express each of the pathe. The voice varies in volume, pitch and rhythm.