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Steps to Civilization PowerPoint Presentation
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Steps to Civilization

Steps to Civilization

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Steps to Civilization

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  1. Steps to Civilization Paleolithic Age Farming Revolution Permanent settlements Division of labor Specialization of labor Technology Trade Cities

  2. Steps to Civilization

  3. Steps to Civilization

  4. Steps to Civilization • Paleolithic Age • nomadic hunters and gatherers • clan groups: 15-20 • clan leader • moving with herds of game • low birth rate

  5. Steps to Civilization

  6. Steps to Civilization • Farming Revolution • domestication of animals and plants in Near East • food surplus • increase in population • food surplus • increase in population • diets more balanced

  7. Steps to Civilization Plant Domestication: Plant: Growing a plant Causing it to change genetically from wild ancestor Goal: make it more useful to humans

  8. Steps to Civilization Plant Domestication: Plant Domestication Stages: Ancestor plant advantages (wheat, barley, peas): could be eaten, high yields, easily grown, grow quickly, easily stored, self pollinating, few genetic changes

  9. Steps to Civilization Plant Domestication: Plant Domestication Stages: First fruit and nut trees (olives, figs, dates, pomegranates, grapes): non nomadic life style, planted as cutting or seed, 3 year food yield cycle

  10. Steps to Civilization Plant Domestication: Plant Domestication Stages: Complex fruit and nut trees (apples, pears, plums, cherries): grafting, cross-pollination, experimentation

  11. Steps to Civilization Animal Domestication: Animal: selectively bred in captivity modified from its wild ancestors, for use by humans who control the animal’s breeding and food supply

  12. Steps to Civilization Animal Domestication Ancient Species of Big Herbivorous Domestic Mammals: Sheep Goat Cow Pig Horse Arabian camel Bactrian camel Llama/alpaca Donkey Reindeer Water buffalo Yak Bali cattle Mithan 13 are from Eurasia and 1 (llama/alpaca) from the Americas

  13. Steps to Civilization Animal Domestication Ancient Species of Big Herbivorous Domestic Mammals: Arabian camel Bactrian camel Llama/alpaca Donkey Reindeer

  14. Steps to Civilization Animal Domestication Ancient Species of Big Herbivorous Domestic Mammals: Water buffalo Yak Bali cattle Mithan 13 are from Eurasia and 1 (llama/alpaca) from the Americas

  15. Steps to Civilization Animal Domestication • Big mammal domestication characteristics: • Diet- 10% biomass coefficient • Growth rate • Problems of captive breeding • Nasty disposition • Tendency to panic • Social structure

  16. Steps to Civilization Animal Domestication Benefits of big mammal domestication: • Meat • Milk products • Fertilizer • Land transportation • Leather • Military assault vehicles • Plow traction • Wool Germs

  17. Steps to Civilization

  18. Steps to Civilization

  19. Steps to Civilization • Permanent settlements • farming villages: 250 • village life • private property • warfare

  20. Steps to Civilization

  21. Steps to Civilization • Division of labor • over production of food • need for part-time non-farming tasks: clothing, tool and weapon making, weaving, baskets, pottery

  22. Steps to Civilization

  23. Steps to Civilization • Specialization of labor • artisan • skills in specialized crafts • non-farmers

  24. Steps to Civilization

  25. Steps to Civilization • Technology • developed by artisans • advancements to improve the efficiency of every day life • closely guarded secrets

  26. Steps to Civilization

  27. Steps to Civilization • Trade • need for unavailable resources • desire to have products you did not have • families, villages, regions • barter • one product exchanged for another product

  28. Steps to Civilization

  29. Steps to Civilization • Cities • develop from growing farming villages • zone development: religion, trade, farming, etc. • required great organization • opportunities • problems

  30. Steps to Civilization

  31. Steps to Civilization Disadvantages: crime, overcrowding, disease, war, shortages Advantages: security, diversity of services, technology, wealth, culture

  32. Steps to Civilization