Villages Grow into Cities • Economic Changes: New technology i.e Irrigation systems, freed ppl to develop skills besides farming. Ex: wheel & sail • Social Changes: social classes with varying wealth, power, and influence emerged.
How Civilization Develops • Advanced Cities: center for trade • Specialized Workers: the wide range of crafts helped cities become centers of trade (clothing, jewelry, pottery) • Complex institutions: Order isneeded • Record keeping: tax collections, passage of laws, storage. • Technology: irrigation, ox-drawn plows http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/376828/Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia • “Land between two rivers” • 3000 BCE Sumer was population reached 100,000 • Between 3200 and 2350 BCE numerous Sumerian city-states were formed. Shared the same culture but developed own govts with own rulers. (Uruk, Kish, UR, etc.)
Mesopotamia • Ziggurat: massive stepped pyramids built to house temples and altars to principal deity. • Cuneiform Writing: involved pictures pressed into clay (kyoo-nee-uh-fawrm) -Started for record keeping, but soon the graphic symbols represented sounds -literacy -Epic of Gilgamesh
Sumer • 3000 BCE -2000BCE city-states were constantly at war. • Hammurabi's code: 1st written form of law, laws dealt with family, community, businesses, and crime. -282 laws written on stone and posted -laws had different punishments for rich/poor, men/women. -eye for an eye concept
Assignment: Create a Ziggurat, explain why each is important to a civilization and how it leads to the next pg 19 in Book Law: Made consequences Writing: More ppl, more spec labor, need for a unified writing system to maintain order Specialized Labor: Specialization allowed cities to turn into trade centers, need for record keeping Agriculture: Allowed ppl stay in one location, more foods, more ppl, more technology, freed time for specialization
Egypt • 3000 BCE, unlike the rivers in Meso, the Nile overflowed once annually. **Irrigation** • “the gift of the Nile” • Most communities were Ag Villages engaged in local trade. • Pharaoh, the King of Egypt, constructed pyramids • Role of king differed: Meso Kings= representatives of Gods Egpt Kings=are the Gods
Egypt • Mummification: Embalming and drying the corpse to prevent decaying. • Believed in afterlife, unlike Meso.
Egyptian Life • Shaped like a pyramid • Social Ranking: Not locked into their classes, able to gain higher status. • Hieroglyphics: writing system, started simple and soon could almost be used like letters of an alphabet • Both Meso & Egpt were polytheists. • Both Meso & Egpt were patriarchal cities
Sample Test Question: The Egyptian civilization was similar to the Sumerian civilization • In its reliance on natural defense barriers • In its system of social stratification • In its political structure • In the extent to which its culture was diffused • In the nature of the flood pattern of its major rivers
Bantu • Migrated throughout sub- Saharan Africa 2000-1000BCE • Two Features that helped spread: Use of Canoes & Ag surpluses enable pop increase from place to place. • Spread of CULTURE • 1000 BCE Iron Tools allowed cultivators to clear land and expand Ag. • Established Ag Societies throughout Sub-Saharan Africa: yams, oil palms, millet, sheep, pigs, and cattle.
Sample Test Question: Which of the following describes a major effect of Bantu Migrations? • The single common religion in sub-Saharan Africa • The diffusion of irrigation techniques in East Africa • Cultural commonalities in sub-Saharan Africa • The political integration between Bantu ppl and Indian sailors
Indus River Valley • 2500BCE another advanced civilization emerged. (present day Pakistan) • While Egypt was building pyramids, Indus people were laying bricks in India’s first cities. • Historians know less b/c the writing has yet to be deciphered. • 2 major cities arose Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
Planned Cities • Like Meso, Indus River was unpredictable • Monsoons, with cycles of wet and dry • They build strong levees, to keep the water, and human made islands to raise cities. • Unlike Meso, their cities were laid out on a precise grid system, granaries • Buildings were build with oven-baked bricks cut into standard sizes. • Plumbing and sewage systems pg47
All of this organization, suggests a strong central govt. • Culture, like Meso and Egpt was based on Agriculture. • Little social division, artifacts show a prosperous society, few weapons, emphasis on animals
Religion: like Meso, ruler was the tie to Gods • Evidence of the Hindu religion • Trade: Gold, Silver with Afghanistan. Precious stones with Persia. • Indus River was key to transportation • Around 1750 BCE the cities gradually fell: Earthquakes, flooding, and deforestation.
Sample Test Question The Indus River Valley • Relied heavily on communal planning • Is best studied though its written records • Was isolated from other river valley civilizations because of mountains • Declined after the arrival of the Aryan invaders • Shared similar flood control concerns as Egptians