Civilization • A complex society in which people make advances in the arts, science, religion, and law.
Irrigation • Using ditches and canals to bring water to a dry place.
Cuneiform • Style of writing that used wedge shapes.
ancient Very old
Pharaoh • A king of ancient Egypt.
pyramid • A stone monument that served as a tomb in ancient Egypt.
mummy • A body prepared in a special way for burial.
hieroglyphics • A kind of writing based on pictures and signs.
subcontinent • A large mass of land that is part of a continent.
caste • A social class into which people are born.
Dynasty • A family that rules for several generations in a row.
Compass • A device with a magnetic needle that points north.
Silk Road • The long route that linked China with the rest of Asia and Europe.
City-state • A city or town and its surrounding lands.
Alphabet • A set of symbols that stand for spoken sounds.
Republic • Government in which people vote for leaders to represent them.
Empire • A group of nations joined under one government.
Architecture • The design of buildings
Aqueduct • The system of pipes and waterways that carries water.
Manor • Farmland owned by a lord or lady.
Peasant • A poor farm worker.
Commerce • The buying and selling of foods.
Guild • A group of people who do the same work and are joined together for an economic reason.
Renaissance • In Europe, a period of new interest in art, literature, science, and architecture.
Monarchy • A nation ruled by one person.
Colonization • The act of setting up colonies.
Dictatorship • A government with a single leader.
Communism • A system in which the government, not the people, owns the country’s land, resources, and means of production.