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Civilization

Civilization

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Civilization

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  1. Civilization What does it mean to be civilized ?

  2. Civilization • A civilization is built on what is required of men, not on that which is provided for them. • Antoine De Saint-Exupery 1900-1944, French Writer • Increased means and increased leisure are the two civilizers of man. • BenjaminDisraeli 1804-1881, British Statesman Prime Minister • To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization. • Toynbee, Arnold1852-1883, British Economic Historian and Reformer

  3. Self-actualization (self-knowledge, fulfillment of personal potential) Esteem (autonomy, achievement, recognition) Social (belonging, affection) Safety (security, protection from harm) Physiological (Hunger, thirst, shelter) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  4. What does it mean to be civilized? • Historians have determined 6 characteristics of civilization: • Cities • Organized central governments • Complex religions • Social classes • Job specialization and the arts • Writing

  5. Rise of Cities • Central feature of ancient civilizations • Located in fertile river valleys Nile River

  6. Rise of Cities • Rivers provided: • water supply • transportation • food supply from animals • Rivers provided challenges: • flooding • irrigation Euphrates River

  7. Organized Central Governments • Early governments were first headed by priests • Later controlled by warrior chiefs or kings • These kings became hereditary rulers

  8. Organized Central Governments • Governments became more complex as new responsibilities arose such as: • tax collecting • law making • handling public works projects • organizing systems of defense

  9. Complex Religions • Generally polytheistic • Many gods represented natural forces • Others controlled human activities • Priests and worshippers tried to gain gods’ favor through complex rituals and sacrifice

  10. Complex Religions • Temples often built to honor specific gods and goddesses Mayan temple Egyptian temple Mesopotamian ziggurat

  11. Social Classes • People ranked according to their profession • Chief • Priests • Nobles • Wealthy merchants • Artisans • Peasants/farmers • Slaves Egyptian social structure

  12. Job Specialization and the Arts • Artisans specialized in various jobs, such as: • Bricklayers • Blacksmiths • Created great architecture and art

  13. Writing • Probably first used by priests • Earliest writing used pictograms Chinese calligraphy Egyptian hieroglyphs Mesopotamian cuneiform

  14. Writing • Symbols later added to represent words and then sounds • Scribes were specially trained to read, write, and record information

  15. Where were the earliest civilizations located?

  16. Why civilizations fall • External • War • Natural disaster • Disease • Internal • Overpopulation • Economic problems • Social disruption • Political struggles

  17. How do civilizations collapse? • Population size and density decrease dramatically • Society tends to become less politically centralized • Less investment is made in things such as architecture, art, and literature • Trade and other economic activities are greatly diminished • The flow of information among people slows • The ruling elites may change, but usually the working classes tend to remain and provide continuity

  18. Is it possible to prevent collapse? • Every society must: • answer basic biological needs of its members: food, drink, shelter, and medical care. • provide for production and distribution of goods and services (perhaps through division of labor, rules concerning property and trade, or ideas about role of work). • provide for reproduction of new members and consider laws and issues related to reproduction (regulation, marriageable age, number of children, and so on). • provide for training (education, apprenticeship, passing on of values) of individuals so that they can become functioning adults in society. • provide for maintenance of internal and external order (laws, courts, police, wars, diplomacy). • provide meaning and motivation to its members. • Thuman and Bennet

  19. Civilization What does it mean to be civilized ?

  20. Bibliography • Annenberg/CPB • American Association for the Advancement of Science • Unitedstreaming.com