Delivery of Aerosolized Drugs through Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Team Patrick Kurkiewicz Annie Loevinger Joe Decker Steve Welch Client Dr. Mihai Teodorescu Advisor Professor John Webster
Outline • Problem Statement • Background Information • Client Specifications • Design Options • Design 1: Jet Nebulizer • Design 2: Ultrasonic Nebulizer with One-Way Valve • Design 3: Ultrasonic Nebulizer with Flow Sensor • Final Design • Future Work • Questions
Problem Statement • A method is needed for automated delivery of bronchodilator drugs, like Albuterol, while using the CPAP device. • Automated delivery should either be continuous or at timed intervals over a patient’s sleep cycle.
Background • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) • Used for sleep apnea and asthma patients • Provides positive pressure to assist breathing Image from Webster, J.G. 2009. Medical Instrumentation.
Background • Nebulizer: transforms liquid medication into mist Jet Nebulizer Ultrasonic Nebulizer • Uses Pressurized Air • Efficiency 39+/-3%** • Uses ultrasonic waves • Efficiency 86+/-5%** patient Image from www.mece.ualberta.ca/arla/tutorial.htm Image from www.sonozap.com/nebulizer.htm ** Gessler T; Schmehl T; Hoeper M M; Rose F; Ghofrani H A; Olschewski H; Grimminger F; Seeger W. 2001. Ultrasonic versus jet nebulization of iloprost in severe pulmonary hypertension. The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology 2001;17(1):14-9.
Client Specifications • Compatible with CPAP • Automatically deliver albuterol sulfate • Cannot compromise quality of sleep • Design for clinical trials • Made for adults • Prototype can be computer interface
Design 1:Jet Nebulizer in-line with CPAP • Simple • Inexpensive • Loud • Requires separate flow generation
Design 2: Ultrasonic Nebulizer with One-Way Valve • Nebulizer gas collects in side chamber during exhale, taken up during inhale • Simple design • Collecting gas may re-condense
Design 3: Ultrasonic Nebulizer with Flow Sensor • Flow sensor detects breathing rate, turns nebulizer on/off based on inhalation cycle • More control • Complicated, requires more parts
Final Design • Ultrasonic nebulizer with one-way valve control • Existing CPAP and mask • Added programmable controls
Future Work • Finish proof of concept testing • Construct prototype nebulizer • Prototype testing • Drug delivery • Control efficacy • Integrate design with CPAP